Why Performance-based Training Fails – According to Rummler

From a 1981 Rummler Session at MTEC

Note the alignment to The Kirkpatrick Model (4 levels). 1981 MTEC G A Rummler Session From my files – from the work of the late Geary A. Rummler – whom I had the pleasure of working with at MTEC – Motorola’s Training & Education Center 1981-1982. See the PDL – Performance Design Lab site – where his former business partners carry on with and extend his work – here. # # #

Monday Morning Quarter PACT #53 – Series Final

Take a Quarter Hour or Less

To develop your ability to adopt and adapt the PACT Processes for ISD – to meet your Requirements and Constraints.

For Performance Improvement and positive ROI when properly targeted.

Slide1

The PACT Video Shorts Series Index and Links

Series Index Page

A- PACT Overviews

B- PACT Analysis

C- CAD – Curriculum Architecture Design

D- MCD – Modular Curriculum Development

E- IAD – Instructional Activity Development

F- Project Planning & Management

G- Group Process Facilitation Tips

H- EPPI – Performance Improvement

*** *** *** ***

This week we offer multiple videos…

Additional Relevant ISD and PI Videos by Guy W. Wallace

These are some of the advanced topic videos on PACT and EPPI – my approach to ISD – Instructional Systems Design and PI – Performance Improvement:

24 Additional Videos – By Guy

http://eppic.biz/resources/video-podcasts/

Here is one:

The EPPI Process Performance Data Architecture

Reminder – there are over 55 free “School of PACT” videos, that in combination with free books, articles, presentations and for fee books intends to enable the practice of performance-based Instructional Systems Design.

To improve Performance Competence at the worker level, the work level, and the workplace level.

For Individual, Process and Organizational performance improvement.

You may view the 55+ in sequence – or bounce around to eventually do just some or all of them.

See the Resource Tab or The Pursuing Performance Blog and the EPPIC Web Site for additional free resources – here.

See the entire School of PACT video collection Index – here.

What is PACT?

PACT is performance-based ISD… at 3 levels… with common analysis and project management approaches, tools and techniques… to speed the ISD process… to be effective while being efficient…

PACT Logo w 5 Methodologies 2

Other PACT Resources

See all of the EPPIC Videos on YouTube – here.

Books for free – here.

Books for sale – here.

The the Reference Tab at http://www.eppic.biz for many more related Resources.

Slide3

This MMQP Series

This Blog series posted each Monday at 8 am east coast time (USA) for 53 weeks – ending May 2015.

Gopher-perched-transparent

This is the final in this series.

Why PACT?

The benefits?

Slide40

PACT is Proven: Transferable – and – Impactful 

The following video was put together by my General Motors client (1998) about their experiences with the internalized (customized in names and labels only) with the Modular Curriculum and Modular Instruction (The PACT Processes) at GM.

More Resources

Here is info about lean-ISD – my 1999 book on my PACT Processes.

Click on image above for the free 410 page PDF.

Buy the Paperback version for $30 here.

Or you can buy the Kindle version.

lean-ISD was awarded an ISPI Award of Excellence in 2002 for Outstanding Instructional Communication

Early articles about ISD/PI methods that became The PACT Processes…

CAD – Training Mag – 1984 – 6 page PDF – the first publication about Curriculum Architecture Design via a Group Process – published in Training Magazine in September 1984. Original manuscript (30 pages) – How to Build a Training Structure That Won’t Keep Burning Down.

Models and Matrices- NSPI PIJ -1984 – 5 page PDF – the first publication of the performance and enabler analysis methods for ISD, from NSPI’s (ISPI’s) Performance & Instruction Journal, November 1984.

The Detailed Project Plan – GWW – 1992 – 4 page PDF – originally published in the Svenson & Wallace, Inc. newsletter: Management Update – in the Summer of 1992.

Teaming for T&D GWW 1999 – 5 page PDF – on my story of inadvertently creating a team – out of frustration with too many revision cycles for a video script I was writing –  for training development back in 1979 – and liking the approach for using a Group Process to shorten cycle times and improve the quality of the output.

PACT Pilot-Test Debriefing Guide – 3 page PDF – presents an overview of how I debrief Pilot-Test participants in ISD efforts. Written in the mid-1990s, published in 1999.

Debriefing PACT Processes – 6 page PDF – article from the 1999 CADDI Newsletter “Pursuing Performance” on my debriefing process for the Analysis and Design Teams in the PACT Processes for Training, Learning and Knowledge Management.

And…

ISPI Masters Series Article – lean-ISD – PIJ – 2001 – 14 page PDF – written as a companion piece to my 2001 Masters Series presentation at ISPI, this provides the background and an overview of lean applied to ISD – Instructional Systems Design – in the 5 methodology-sets of my PACT Processes for Training, Learning and Knowledge Management. Written in 2000, published in ISPI’s Performance and Improvement Journal in 2001.

And here is an update to that book – in a 12-part series for ISPI:

Performance-based ISD – ISPI PX 12-part Series – 2007 – 122 page PDF – an update in 12-parts to my 1999 book: lean-ISD – which covers my ISD methods: The PACT Processes for T&D, Learning and Knowledge Management. Published in ISPI’s PerformanceExpress during the 12 months of 2007.

# # #

EPPI Stage 1: Targeting Enterprise Process Performance Improvement

Most improvement methodologies begin with their means in mind. Lean efforts will use streamlining methods to produce revamped processes stripped of unnecessary tasks and delays. Six Sigma efforts will use statistical variation reduction methods in the product producing processes. Organizational Development efforts will use behavioral science, group dynamics, assessment of strategy deployment and goal alignment methods to improve the effectiveness of the enterprise leadership, management and individual contributors. Education and training efforts will use Instructional Systems Design methods to produce awareness-knowledge-skills building content. Etc. Etc.

Almost all recognize the interrelationships of the other performance factors that the other methods address, but few have their integration and collaboration requirements built in from their git-go.

Warning: If your improvement efforts are not targeting strategically significant ROI, then perhaps the following is overkill indeed. But then why are you bothering with improvement? Allocating limited enterprise resources for marginal returns is most likely not in the best interests of your shareholders.

If your improvement strategy is to improve everything everywhere without regard to strategic impact and ROI you should stop reading right now. This is not for you.

Targeting Enterprise Process Performance Improvement

EPPI Stage 1

Stage 1 of EPPI – Targeting Enterprise Process Performance Improvement efforts hold off on solution declarations until all probable causes for current gaps from ideal, or future gaps that can be anticipated are identified, verified and sized…and their solution-sets identified, verified and sized…and potential ROI established for targeting the real and/or anticipated gaps eliminated and/or resolved.

EPPI Logo

A key model, next, is our adaptation and extension of the Ishikawa Diagram, also known as the Fishbone or Cause & Effect Diagram.

It has been adapted and extended on the left by viewing a process as part of an “owner’s” functional system within a configuration of departments, functions and business units of an enterprise. It has been adapted and extended on the right by re-organizing the variables into two main branches of Human Assets and Environmental Assets and exploding those another layer.

Slide3

EPPI Process Performance Variables

The model is intended to highlight the three key variables of process performance:

  • The process itself with it’s upstream inputs and suppliers, and downstream output receivers; and its position in the enterprise relative to the strategic drivers and stakeholder requirements
  • The enabling human assets and their awareness, knowledge, skills, physical attributes, psychological attributes, intellectual attributes and personal values that they bring to the process
  • The enabling environmental assets and the provisioning systems that supply the process and the human assets with enablers such as the data/information, materials/supplies, tools/equipment, financial resources, facilities/grounds, and the culture/consequences

The Process Itself

The process itself is a component of a larger, complex Value Chain. It and the Value Chain have many stakeholders

Stakeholder Hierachy Example 1

Stakeholders with potentially complex and perhaps conflicting requirements (needs) and desires (wants).

Many varied process and process improvement methods exist. And many traditional enterprise functions “house” the experts representing those methods. For example Marketing may house the upfront portions of Quality Function Deployment for determining customer needs and wants expertise while Manufacturing Engineering may house the backend portions of product and process design. In the middle they may share analysis of the competitors’ offerings. Their need to collaborate is critical.

But many other functional players may be required in to play nicely in any number of “owner function’s process.” Engineering may support the Materials function’s process for certifying vendors’ quality programs, etc.

The Enabling Human Assets

Slide9

Figure 3:  The Human Variable

Don Tosti declared in his February 2006 BPTrends White Paper that:

Every organization is a human performance system:

  • It was founded by people.
  • It’s run by people, and
  • It’s established to provide value to the people who are its customers/stakeholders.

Agreed. Without the human element there is nothing. No customer. No requirements. No process to produce outputs to meet those requirements. No suppliers to provide process inputs. No one to care one way or another.

The human elements’ knowledge/skills, attributes and values either enable or prohibit their peak performance in specifying or capturing the requirements and desires of the customers, designing the processes to meet those requirements and desires, providing the process inputs necessary, and performing within the processes to produce and deliver the outputs downstream to internal or external customers in the Value Chain.

And while not all knowledge/skills, attributes and value variables of the performers are equal in terms of their probable impact on their processes performance, they must be known in order to assess the leverage potential of the critical few from the important many.

Therefore I must take slight exception to Paul Harmon’s statement in his July 18, 2006 BPTrends Email Advisor regarding the need (or not) for detailed mapping and modeling of processes:

Keep in mind, the goal isn’t to model everything, but only to create such models as are needed by business people or IT folks to accomplish their daily tasks. We analyze to see if we can determine how to perform the process better, or to specify what needs to be automated. We usually don’t need to try to analyze how a loan negotiator carries out each step of the negotiation.

Not true for the HR folks, including the training staff concerned with performance-based training or legal staff concerned with compliance. Nor for the IT folks who are attempting to assess the potential for automating the potentially routine elements of that type of negotiation. But occasionally true; especially if that process performance isn’t routine at all and is highly situational and inter-personal relationship dependent.

And the generic competencies in prevalent use today will never get anyone to peak performance. They may make it easier to assess and compensate people; but easier isn’t often better let alone adequate. Especially for the most critical of your processes and performers.

The Enabling Environmental Assets

Slide8

This is the EPPI analysis and design framework used to determine the specifics in each category for all of the necessary enablers of those critical process performances. Once any deficiencies in the necessary enablers are determined for the current state or anticipated for some future state, the impact to process performance can be assessed, and the cost for addressing can be estimated, enabling the enterprise to forecast the R (return) for the I (investment).

Stage 1 Leads to Stage 2

EPPI Stage 1 and 2

In Stage 2 you’d employee Process Re-Engineering, ToC, Lean, Six Sigma, etc., etc.

# # #

Learning to Live With Process Performance Gaps

Sometimes the R for the I Isn’t Worth the Effort and Expenditure

Sometimes.

Sometimes it’s best to live with a Problem or to miss an Opportunity. Sometimes there are bigger fish to fry – elsewhere. Or – there aren’t enough resources to tackle that Issue – Problem/Opportunity – right now. Or ever.

Sometimes.

But there are things that you need to do first – several things to do first – before launching into that Effort and Expenditure. Or deciding to not do that. Not address the P/O. The Issue. And then live with it.

But…

Ya gotta do the math. Ya gotta map the process. Ya gotta frame the problem and/or opportunity.

And ya gotta do those 3 things in the reverse order.

Slide1

Frame the Problem and/or Opportunity

How you frame your problem and/or opportunity depends a bit on your enterprise culture – at least the culture in your working sphere.

How you present the big picture, bottom line, and then all or enough of the stinkin’ details to satisfy the challengers – in good or bad faith – is something you need to determine. If you’ve got an issue (problem/opportunity) that is a “big enough deal” – to key stakeholders – then they’ll either need more details – unless they already trust you based on what you’ve done for them lately.

Buzz Thoughts...a

Map the Process

That Issue – problem/opportunity – impacts some Process or Processes – is created in some Process or Processes.

Pinning this down may or may not be easy.

Eventually you might use some sort of diagram or map to portray the Issue.

Slide3

And just as architectural rendering go from the big view to the successive layers of detail – you might have multiple layers to explain the Issue.

This too may be somewhat culturally driven. So your Maps and levels of detail, and styles, may vary.

Do the Math

Ya gotta do the math. The ROI.

To the level and detail needed by the stakeholders. Those necessary to enable the Effort and Expenditure forecasted. By the ROI.

The I – the Investment costs – the only a little tricky to calculate compared to the R.

I my view, the R can be Rewards Achieved (RA) and/or Risks Avoided (RA) – just as they are both in my view two sides of the same coin – so to speak.

The I – Investment Costs need to consider both Initial Costs and Life-Cycle Costs – for the “planning period” – in months or years. Typically for a 1 to 3 year period – but check within your organization to determine what the hurdle rates are, currently – knowing that they might often change.

ROI – and the details and methods for calculating and adjusting and assessing risks and assuming costs for capital over the planning horizon, in any Enterprise, is often a cultural norm.

Figure that out before assuming anything.

Summary

Ya gotta do the math. Ya gotta map the process. Ya gotta frame the problem and/or opportunity.

And ya gotta do those 3 things in the reverse order.

And when the R for the I doesn’t meet the hurdle rate (currently) being used – stand down. And live with your Problem – or Opportunity Missed – because there are those times when it’s cheaper to live with the Problem than to Solve it.

Unless your Enterprise is self-actualizing – and faces no future threats or challenges – and has plenty of assets – you probably cannot afford CI – Continuous Improvement – on anything and everything. Not to start. Not until the R’s for the I’s accumulate a bit – to self fund another round of Improvements. First simply for the sake of the Enterprise. Second for the Sake of Continuous Improvement – if at all. IMO.

Yours may vary.

As will your frame, your map and your ROI.

Slide14

For the only constant nowadays – is constant change.

# # #

Monday Morning Quarter PACT #52

Take a Quarter Hour or Less

To develop your ability to adopt and adapt the PACT Processes for ISD – to meet your Requirements and Constraints.

For Performance Improvement and positive ROI when properly targeted.

Slide1

The PACT Video Shorts Series Index and Links

Series Index Page

A- PACT Overviews

B- PACT Analysis

C- CAD – Curriculum Architecture Design

D- MCD – Modular Curriculum Development

E- IAD – Instructional Activity Development

F- Project Planning & Management

G- Group Process Facilitation Tips

H- EPPI – Performance Improvement

*** *** *** ***

This week’s video…

H3- EPPI Stage II 

Video Short H3- EPPI – Stage II

Reminder – this is just one video of a collection of over 55 free “School of PACT” videos, that in combination with free books, articles, presentations and for fee books intends to enable the practice of performance-based Instructional Systems Design. To improve Performance Competence at the worker level, the work level, and the workplace level. For Individual, Process and Organizational performance improvement.

You may view them in sequence – or bounce around to eventually do just some or all of them.

See the Resource Tab or The Pursuing Performance Blog and the EPPIC Web Site for additional free resources – here.

See the entire School of PACT video collection Index – here.

What is PACT?

PACT is performance-based ISD… at 3 levels… with common analysis and project management approaches, tools and techniques… to speed the ISD process… to be effective while being efficient…

PACT Logo w 5 Methodologies 2

Other PACT Resources

See all of the EPPIC Videos on YouTube – here.

Books for free – here.

Books for sale – here.

Slide3

This MMQP Series

This Blog series will post each Monday at 8 am east coast time (USA).

Gopher-perched-transparent

Go for it – here – Monday Mornings!

Why PACT?

The benefits?

Slide40

PACT is Proven

# # #

My Performance Modeling Roots Examined – Quickly

 Reflecting Out Loud 

Analysis for Instruction and Beyond

Sharing My Notes From a 1980 Review of Behavior Analysis Workshop Materials from Praxis 

Here are my notes, from 1980, of my word by word review of a binder of Praxis Training materials, “Behavior Analysis Workshop” – from the firm of Tom Gilbert and Geary Rummler: Praxis. It is a 56 page PDF:

1980 GWW Notes on Behavior Analysis Workshop

1980 GWW Notes on Behavior Analysis Workshop_Page_01

In these notes you will see mention of a Performance Table and the Praxis example. I was already using such a Table, a derivative as it were of the Praxis version.

The Praxis version is shown next.

1980 GWW Notes on Behavior Analysis Workshop_Page_24

I was already familiar with the concept and practice of Performance Tabling (Modeling) when I reviewed these materials and created these notes, as I’d been on a 3 person team (within the HR department of Training Services from August 1979) doing this – using this concept – in our own upfront analysis to direct our Training Design efforts and outputs.

The Performance Table ala Wickes Lumber

This is a blank example from 1979, during my days (18 months) at Wickes Lumber – (now defunct) – in HR’s Training Services department – in Saginaw MI – August 1979 – April 1981.

BPS05042015_0001

In 1984 My Business Partners and I Wrote About and Shared Our Approach

… including but beyond the look-see at Performance.

It was on to the Enablers, as I later framed that level of analysis in my PACT and EPPI methodologies.

Slide1 (7)

Back to examining my Roots and not the Flowers of those roots … of my approach to Instructional and Performance Improvement Analysis 

Modeling and Matrices

In 1984 my business partners and I published our approach to this approach to Analysis and our extension into the enablers – for Instruction and beyond.

You can see that here:

Models and Matrices- NSPI PIJ -1984 – 5 page PDF – the first publication of the performance and enabler analysis methods for ISD, from NSPI’s (ISPI’s) Performance & Instruction Journal, November 1984.

NSPI PIJ November 1984 Analysis Article

But wait – there’s more…

My Chapter in the 2006 edition of The HPT Handbook

In 2006 this was published…

Modeling Mastery Performance and Systematically Deriving the Enablers for Performance Improvement – by Guy W. Wallace, CPT – Chapter 11 of the Handbook of Human Performance Technology – 3rd Edition.  This methodology was first published in this 1984 article in ISPI’s (then NSPI’s) PIJ in November 1984.

Slide28

This – above – was the most extensive review of how I approach Analysis for Instruction and Beyond … that wasn’t in a book … such as lean-ISD (1999), or in Performance-based Employee Qualification/ Certification Systems (2008), or in the PACT 6 Pack of books (2011).

lean-ISD (1999)

1999 lean-ISD Book Cover

And also…

Performance-based Employee Qualification/ Certification Systems (2008)

2008 PB EQCS Book Cover

BTW – Both of these two books are available as paperbacks and as FREE PDFs, in the Resource Tab.

More Recently

Since 2007 I have been writing and publishing via my Blog on these topics.

But as I have not given credit where credit is due in each of those Posts – I hope that this will suffice.

Remember – It’s Not All About Learning

Slide1

It’s All About Performance

Even in a Learning Organization.

Slide4

Especially in a Learning Organization. IMO.

And Then From 2011

My books for sale on my approach and applications of Performance Tabling – or – Performance Modeling…

Slide5

For more about these and other books – please go here.

Or, explore the Resource Tab for the 400+ free resources I’ve shared there.

# # #