While unguided or minimally-guided instructional approaches are very popular and intuitively appealing, the point is made that these approaches ignore both the structures that constitute human cognitive architecture and evidence from empirical studies over the past half century that consistently indicate that minimally-guided instruction is less effective and less efficient than instructional approaches that place a strong emphasis on guidance of the student learning process.
The advantage of guidance begins to recede only when learners have sufficiently high prior knowledge to provide ‘internal’ guidance.
Why Minimal Guidance during Instruction Does Not Work:
An Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential,
and Inquiry-Based Teaching
Paul A. Kirschner – Open University of the Netherlands / Educational Technology Expertise Center
John Sweller – University of New South Wales / School of Education
Richard E. Clark – University of Southern California / Rossier School of Education
February 1, 2005
In Press, for June 2006, Educational Psychologist. 41(2
That’s the issue with all the overgeneralizing about Informal Learning!
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