A Performance Orientation to Management Development
After many years (over 12) and many consulting projects between us (over 20) that addressed “Managers” – using our CAD – Curriculum Architecture Design methods (published in TRAINING Magazine in September 1984) – including Performance Analysis – my business partners, at the time, and I came up with a model of Managerial Performance.
The segments of “Performance” were Areas of Performance – almost the same as Major Duties, Key Responsibilities, etc., etc. Although those sometimes carried nuanced meaning to those that used them.
The current version of that effort, from the early 1990s, is in this next graphic.
Areas of Performance – and – Enabling K/Ss
Those 14 AoPs are organized into 3 Tiers:
- Leadership (mostly common across all managers in an Enterprise)
- Core (mostly unique across all managers in an Enterprise)
- Support (also mostly common across all managers in an Enterprise)
Now these are the Areas of Performance – and as with my approach to Analysis (also first published back in 1984 two months after the TRAINING Magazine article on CAD, in the November issue of NSPI’s Performance & Instruction Journal) – are not the Enabling Knowledge and Skills required.
Those enablers are systematically derived from the models of Performance, captured in charts such as this next example.
The K/S Enablers are captured in charts such as this, the Enabling K/S Matrices.
These analysis effort “outputs” then are used to conduct ETA efforts – Existing T&D Assessments – so as to ReUse anything – content-wise -that is appropriate to the effort.
ReUse – either As Is, or After Modification – or it may be decide that some existing Content is simply Not Applicable to the effort at hand.
14 Areas of Managerial Performance
Note: Not all Managerial AoPs are applicable to EVERY manager.
As Always, It Depends.
Use these on your own managerial job – or that of your analysis targets…
Level 1 – Management Leadership AoPs
The Leadership Areas of Performance are intended to segment the leadership and managerial work that is focused on relationships with stakeholders, strategic planning and both long and short term operations planning, measurement (balance scorecard type)of results systems, systems/process improvement systems, and communications systems.
Again, the six Leadership AoPs are
- L1 – Stakeholder Relationship Management/System Governance
- L2 – Strategic Planning & Management
- L3 – Operations Planning & Management
- L4 – Results Measurement Planning & Management
- L5 – Process Improvement Planning & Management
- L6 – Communications Planning & Management
Let’s now look a little deeper at each of the AoPs in level 1 of the model.
L1: Stakeholder Relationship Management/Governance is about the data gathering regarding all stakeholders’ needs, and gathering feedback on how well the enterprise, or individual manager’s systems/processes are doing in meeting those needs.
Once all of these stakeholder needs are better understood, governance goals can be established, appropriate to the balancing of any stakeholder requirement conflicts that may exist.
L2: Strategic Planning & Management is about the setting of longer-term strategic goals, and plans to achieve those governance goals.
L3: Operations Planning & Management addresses the development and management of an operational (annual) plan to achieve the assigned year’s annual goals/objectives consistent with the longer-term strategic goals and plans.
L4: Results Measurement Planning & Management focuses on the establishment of a meaningful scorecard set of measures and the measurement mechanisms for the gathering and reporting out of data/information to all stakeholders related to the desired enterprise results.
L5: Process Improvement Planning & Management is about the systematic improvement of internal processes for ROI benefit, and to achieve annual and long-term (strategic) goals and plans.
L6: Communications Planning & Management addresses the planning and management of communications, both proactive and reactive.
All of these Leadership AoPs are not about leading and managing “in the moment,” but are leadership and management activities for both the long-term and medium-term, as appropriate to the enterprise, and its industry and its current situation in its business “cycle.”
Level 2 – Management Core AoPs
The Core Areas of Performance include management activities, for leaders and mangers alike, that are all about the “in the moment” duties, include:
- C1: Planning Work
- C2: Assigning Work
- C3: Monitoring Work
- C4: Troubleshooting Work
Let’s now look a little deeper at each of the AoPs in level 2 of the model.
C1: Planning Work is about deciding what gets done and by whom and when.
C2: Assigning Work addresses the communications of the work assignment.
C3: Monitoring Work focuses on the follow up monitoring of work process and/or work product to insure that everything is okay. If not, see the next AoP.
C4: Troubleshooting Work addresses the following up on any work product or process discrepancies to resolve them. This is about getting to the “root cause” and not spinning enterprise wheels on addressing symptoms that won’t resolve anything.
Every manager does these, by walking around and observing and talking with staff and customers and suppliers, and by reviewing and interpreting results data.
This is the core of any manager’s job; the planning, assigning, monitoring, and troubleshooting the work of their subordinates and their subordinate organizations.
The next part of the job involves putting “everything in place” so that the leadership goals and plan and budgets achieve the desired end goals, plus anything else put on that manager’s plate.
Level 3 – Management Support AoPs
The Support Areas of Performance are about putting “everything in place” so that the leadership goals and plan and budgets achieve the desired end goals; so that there is something to plan, assign, monitor, and troubleshoot. These AoPs include:
- S1 – Process Design/re-design
- S2 – Human Assets Management
- S3 – Environmental Assets Management
- S4 – Special Assignments
Let’s now look a little deeper at each of the AoPs in level 4 of the model.
S1: Process Design/re-design is about making changes to the existing processes in terms of their steps, inputs, individual contributors roles/responsibilities, etc. Approaches including Lean and Six Sigma, among others, are used to address process improvement and streamlining via design or redesign of the process.
S2: Human Assets Management is about the acquisition, development, appraisal and compensation/rewarding of the human performers. These are typically HR systems that require alignment to the enterprise’s process needs.
S3: Environmental Assets Management is about the acquisition, development, and maintenance of the non-human assets necessary to the process.
S4: Special Assignments is about the “other duties as assigned” responsibilities of management.
Leaders and managers are responsible for putting “processes in place” and “people assets in place” and “non-people assets in place” to get the job done with the assets provided.
The Book – Paperback and/or Kindle
That’s the model, the framework I used in this book, for helping others do their diagnostics and design of Management Development efforts. The book is intended to help a Manager do this for themselves, and/or for other managers who are their direct reports, or for those in L&D charged with conducting these types of efforts – and wish to stand above the fray of foo foo in Management Development efforts.
For information about the book – $20 for paperback and $15 for Kindle – please go here.
If you are interested in having me do this kind of work with you, or developing your staff in the analysis and design methods I use – contact me by email or phone to discuss the specifics of your needs:
email@example.com – 704- 895- 6364 (o) – 704- 746- 5126 (m).
Those Resources from 1984
CAD – Training Mag – 1984 – 6 page PDF – the first publication about Curriculum Architecture Design via a Group Process – published in Training Magazine in September 1984.
Original manuscript (30 pages) – How to Build a Training Structure That Won’t Keep Burning Down.
Models and Matrices- NSPI PIJ -1984 – 5 page PDF – the first publication of the performance and enabler analysis methods for ISD, from NSPI’s (ISPI’s) Performance & Instruction Journal, November 1984.
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