What Will You Find on a T&D/ Learning Path?

And How Would You Get There?

First – what would you find on that T&D Path – or that Learning Path if you prefer?

Whats On a TandD Path - from 1999

A Path and a Planning Guide. Above are 4 examples of Paths – from real projects.

But wait, there’s more.

And What Else Will You Produce – That Might Be of Value?

What else is produced and how might it be used?

Check out the next graphic.


The Performance Model – and the matrices of systematically derived enablers (such as awareness, knowledge and skills) can feed a Learning/Training Content Development system’s ADDIE/SAT/SAM design approach, methods. In PACT it feeds instructional design – which feeds Development, etc.

… an aside …

But it also feed other Human Asset Management systems – and Environmental Asset Management systems – which in my EPPI models/methods are portrayed in this next graphic…

The EPPI HAMS and EAMS Model

The Training & Development Systems – Learning Systems if you prefer – include Path design, Content development, Planning Tools/systems development, Deployment systems development/ administration/ maintenance, etc., etc.

And etc.

Note: my approach to learning/Training is “it’s all about the Performance” – on-the-job – that guides all of the inevitable trade-offs made deliberately or inadvertently – of any ISD-like process. Just as I would approach the Design/Development of any other Solution-set, including a Training/Learning component or not.

That’s where the Performance data and the Enabler data might be of value.

And of even greater value for bringing all of those systems/processes/outputs and efforts – in sync with each other – in sync with the Performance Requirements of the Processes of their Enterprise – and not some generic construct with inevitable Transfer issues that will then negatively impact Results/ROI.

So How Does One Go About Doing This?

Systematically one would hope. And with a proven process/approach.

Here’s mine…



I’ve done 75 of these myself, to date. Almost always where the Risks and/or Rewards of the Performance Situation/Context dictated not risking those Risks and/or Rewards by leaving the situation to the current state, mostly Informal Learning (once you see what their is to be learned) with a few Formal (but typically NOT AUTHENTIC) Learning components.

More Detail on How? Read on, read on …

CAD – Phase 1: Project Planning & Kick-Off

It’s more needed than to “just do it.” Much more. If it is to be done right. What are the consequences for getting something like this “not right enough?” That a Business Assessment – not an Instructional Design decision.

Which is why I use a Project Steering Team – to make those Business Decisions. And to sanction the Instructional Design Decisions – making them Recommendations – which is as it should be IMO.


Note that these slides are from a past project, albeit conducted a decade ago in 2004.

On to Analysis, but not with Paralysis…

CAD – Phase 2: Analysis

Focus on the Performance Requirements of the Target Audience(s)- and enable them … starts here.


Quick can be done with Quality.

Beware of GIGO: Garbage In – Garbage Out.

Chose all of your sources carefully. And to me that means the people who will collaborate in this effort.

On to Design – done quickly and collaboratively…

CAD – Phase 3: Design


Design Team members should always be members of the Analysis Team.


They process the analysis data that they themselves created previously when on the Analysis Team – to create the design – the modular Path – a Path of modular Events of modular Lessons – in my approach. Which is modular – and not collections of Modules. Big Diff IMO.

On to Implementation Planning… to decide which of the Content that “could be” – “should be” resourced for buy and/or build – of what “will be” … and certainly not building out all of the Gaps – unless they all present significant R for the I – as in ROI.

CAD – Phase 4: Implementation Planning

Not everything that could be – should be.

Some should not be; and should be left to Informal Learning. Some should not.

It’s a Business Decision as to which Learning is Formal and which is left to Informal means … which can then be looked at for how well current systems and tools facilitate those Informal Learning situations.

By Design.

Yeah – there too. Not in the “what” of Informal – but in the “how” of Informal. Let the marketplace dictate the What. Let the Enterprise enable the How.

For Performance Purposes. Not Learning for the sake of Learning.


Everything starts as Informal Learning. Right?

The decision to make it, the Informal, more Formal, is a Business Decision.

How to  make it Formal – and what media/modes to use – is an Instructional Design Decision – best influenced by the customer’s people “in-the-know” – who I classify as Master Performers and Top Managers.

So in the end – of a CAD effort anyway – the client decides what to leave Informal and what to make Formal – due to the Risks and Rewards – and then some ADDIE-like or SAM-like or MCD-like approach is used to build out the prioritized, and resourced, Gaps in the Path.


One CAD leads to potentially many downstream efforts to build or buy or buy and customize – that make some generic content more authentic. Which is important for transfer. Which either leads to enough R for the I – or it doesn’t – but that’s a function of the targeting/prioritization done in Phase 4. Not exclusively of what follows Phase 4 … which in my case is an MCD or an IAD effort.

Here is a Blog Post about my latest CAD effort (before I spent 20 months in Toronto for a Pharma Documentation effort) where we started the CAD effort on January 9, 2012 and ended less than 20 business days later on January 30.

So, yes. Accelerated.

PACT is accelerated – by design.


The Path

The Path is a marketing poster – IMO – that I have used since the early 1980s – to create initial awareness of the design – and interest in digging deeper into the next layers of the design – those Events on the path – and their Modules/Lessons. During Review Meetings I would put it over the coffee and refreshments.


The Path is an “advanced organizer” for my review with the Project Steering Team – who have serious Business Decisions coming up soon – by the time we are all at the end of Phase 3.

An “advanced organizer” so that the Business Decisions they would make could be more fully informed. By the additional layers of data – from the analysis effort – in the layers of design.

So putting it over the coffee allowed each reviewer their first shot at their own sniff test, at their leisure.

So it’s important to Get ‘Er Right. To inform the Business Decisions about what gaps to resource – which could be an expensive proposition – and one the decision makers need to feel comfortable about making … and trusting the data that led to those Phase 4 Business Decisions.

Or – you are addressing the wrong Target IMO.

If it’s not that important.

So – How to Get ‘Er Right?

With sufficient details based on a sound logic.

Architecture Implies – To Me – Structure and Rules and Laws of Science

Curriculum Architecture – what some might call a Learning Architecture – should be something more than a collection of modules.

It should be a modular set of content – for use before and/or during the job tasks – as determined by the situational Context – and the Risks and Rewards (the R’s in ROI IMO).

I’ve been doing these since 1982. I’ve done 75 to date.



PACT uses an Enterprise Content Architecture … think Dewey Decimal System … or categories … used to increase Content ReUse at reduced costs.

Architecture Implies Logic

The PACTLogic…

PACT Data Logic

Why Bother?

For the Returns on the Investments.

PACT 7 Business Reasons for Embracing

That’s the only valid reason. IMO.

Articles – From Back in the Day

Back 30 years ago in fact.


Both 1984 present an approach to using Teams – Groups – an accelerating the Analysis, the Design and the Client Project Oversight in Instructional Design efforts. All of my books and most of my articles include some aspect of customer collaboration in the work that I do to help clients Improve.

For the Performance.

For the ROI.

Or … why bother?

Books For Free

As a PDF … click here.


Other free books are offered – see the Resource Tab for many articles, audios, videos and books from Guy W. Wallace.

And of course – there’s more!

  • For a Paperback version of lean-ISD … for a fee … click here.
  • And for a Kindle version of lean-ISD … for a fee … click here.

Mo Books … For A Fee

This PACT-EPPI 6 pack was published in 2011. Available as paperbacks and Kindles. Reasonably priced.


Click here for more info.

Contact Me For Information About My Consulting Services


I’ve been an external consultant since 1982 – and have served over 75 clients.

Perhaps I can serve you and your clients?

LIPT gww2013

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