Sometimes My Lesson Designs Start With an APPO or a DEMO Versus a Typical INFO

Note: The flow in Delivery … is different than the flow in the Design effort. This post covers flow from the Delivery perspective – using Design outputs.

Typical Design Flow: INFO – DEMO – APPO

For eventual – post-Development – Delivery…

After the OPEN, most Lesson Maps’ flows … begin with Information – or in PACT Lesson Mapping Speak: INFO.

See the Lesson Map example below. Please assume that Lesson 3 below is – in a particular Event in a particular Path – is preceded by enough coverage of PACT and Performance Analysis and the Group Process – and is followed by whatever is necessary to achieve Performance Competence by design – that this design element is logical in flow and depth in the big picture


Note that each Instructional Activity – for each INFO or DEMO or APPO – is detailed in another design document format – not covered here in the post.

Start with an APPO When …

However there have been times when the Lesson began … after the OPEN … with an APPO … an Application Exercise … in PACT Lesson Mapping speak.

See the Map example below.


Why? When?

Perhaps for shock value. Perhaps the need is to make sure that everybody entering into the designed learning experience … is clear that they can’t currently do it … or that they can (and it can be done).

If this was for group paced (classroom or online) I would insure that somehow the Instructor/Facilitator would/could use those that pass the first application test, er, exercise, to help those that may need some coaching.

Getting two for one, so to speak.

And a few times … even-before the OPEN … the Lesson began with an APPO … to be followed by the OPEN.

See the example Map below.


For even greater shock value.

This was when the client and/or Design Team worried that the target audience would believe that they already knew how to do this – and it would be necessary to prove them wrong (gently or bluntly TBD) … because I had asked them – the client in the prior PST meeting and/or the Design Team as we began.

Start with a DEMO When …

When that would help the Learner mentally prepare for what is to follow – beyond what’s typically in the OPEN – where what they might get in the INFO wouldn’t make sense to all, or enough that it makes sense to preface everything, content-wise, with the big picture – and see the whole thing demonstrated in full.

Perhaps the Parachute Learner should see the preparation of the chute, harness, googles and altimeter, etc, before jumping out of a perfectly good airplane – sets the stage better – for learning about proper folding and packing of the chute.

Otherwise, the learner may not really appreciate the full set of lessons before getting the the big lesson of the Learning Event.

Sometimes that could be just inconvenient – and others times – that could be dangerous.

See the example Lesson Map below.


Bonus Points

Perhaps you caught that there is something missing in each of the Lesson Maps above.

Perhaps it – the missing stuff – was pushed to another Lesson – and this title and objectives simply didn’t get fixed/sync’d (your hint) – or it was somehow missed in the frenzy of the group process – if not done right – and just not mapped.

Note: in my experience – the Design Team would never let this happen – and this error – whichever it was – would be easily recovered from.

Lesson Design Happens in MCD and IAD, But Not in CAD



An ISD – Instructional Systems Design – methodology-set.


It includes a Design of a Path/Menu of learning experiences designed with performance competence development in mind.

It also includes the Design at the Event Level and at the Module/Lesson level and at the components of a Lesson – which in PACT are known as Instructional Activity.

The alternative, of course, is whatever-whenever-however … the most Informal.

That – is a business decision as well. Not an ISD decision.


CADs lead to MCDs.



PACT is a subset of EPPI

Slide1 (7)

Search under EPPI on this site for more on that.

Articles & Chapter Covering PACT and EPPI

This one on Analysis from the ISPI (then NSPI) Journal in November 1984…


Models and Matrices- NSPI PIJ -1984 – 5 page PDF – the first publication of the performance and enabler analysis methods for ISD, from NSPI’s (ISPI’s) Performance & Instruction Journal, November 1984.

And this article on Curriculum Architecture Design – from September 1984 in TRAINING Magazine…


CAD – Training Mag – 1984 – 6 page PDF – the first publication about Curriculum Architecture Design via a Group Process – published in Training Magazine in September 1984. Original manuscript (30 pages) – How to Build a Training Structure That Won’t Keep Burning Down.

And … Chapter 11 in this 2006 book:

Slide28 (2)

Modeling Mastery Performance and Systematically Deriving the Enablers for Performance Improvement – by Guy W. Wallace, CPT – Chapter 11 of the Handbook of Human Performance Technology – 3rd Edition – 2006.  This methodology was first published in this 1984 article in ISPI’s (then NSPI’s) PIJ in November 1984.

Presentation Covering PACT CAD


CAD – NSPI – 1985 – 21 page PDF – this is the first national presentation on the Curriculum Architecture Design methodology which Guy Wallace delivered at the NSPI Conference on April 24, 1985 (the 1st presentation of this was done for the Chicago Chapter of NSPI the previous fall).

 lean-ISD for Training – Lakewood Conf – 1998 – 33 page PDF – Presentation on “lean-ISD” via the PACT Processes for T&D –  at the 1998 Training Conference – by Guy W. Wallace and Pete Hybert – addressing the 3 levels of Instructional Design: CAD –  Curriculum Architecture Design plus MCD – Modular Curriculum Development (the PACT Process version of ADDIE) and IAD – Instructional Activity Development – and their phases, outputs, “sharable content,” and the teams for these approaches to projects.

lean-ISD Masters Series – ISPI – 2001 – 40 page PDF –  Guy Wallace’s 2001 Masters Series presentation at ISPI – this provides the background and an overview of lean applied to ISD – Instructional Systems Design – and the 5 methodology-sets of the PACT Processes for Training, Learning and Knowledge Management. Covers the 5 methodology-sets of the PACT Processes, the background, purpose, outputs, process phases, teams involved.

Books Covering PACT and EPPI

From 1999


Free Book PDFs

lean-ISD (1999)

Click on image to link to the download page.

Note: the cover design for “lean-ISD” was created by the late Geary A. Rummler.

Note: Guy W. Wallace’s book “lean-ISD” – was a recipient of a 2002 Award of Excellence for Instructional Communication from the International Society for Performance Improvement.

lean-ISD is also available as a $15 paperback book – and $7.50 as a Kindle – for more and to order – please go – here.


For more information about these 6 books – please go here.

Retirement Book Pricing 2016-03


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One comment on “Sometimes My Lesson Designs Start With an APPO or a DEMO Versus a Typical INFO

  1. Pingback: L&D: Most IceBreakers Leave Me Cold | EPPIC - Pursuing Performance

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