L&D: Serving PUSH and PULL Target Audiences

Via Content Architectural Design Thinking for Greater Sharing

Without negatively impacting Effectiveness for greater Efficiency – you can design and then develop/acquire content using my content architectural design, or configuration, THINKING – to serve these two audience segments in any Enterprise to both greater effectiveness and greater efficiency:

  • Serve PUSH Target Audiences
  • Serve PUSH Target Audiences

PUSH Target Audiences are by definition: critical performers and the goal is to meet almost all of their on-the-job Performance Competence Requirements 100%, on some immediate or planned schedule of competence development. Risk assessments have deem these target audiences critical to bring to full competence in some planned and controlled manner.

PULL Target Audiences are by definition:  less critical performers and the goal is to offer them whatever we’ve got … unless some of content should be restricted to protect proprietary plans, products or processes, etc. Management has not yet, if ever, deemed them to be addressed as completely as possible – due to the risk assessment of such.

ECA – Enterprise Content Architecture

Note: I have sometimes in my past writings and presentations have referred to this as my 5 Tier Content Inventory.

Can you disassemble some of your learning content from 4-6 course/modules into this 5 part segmentation scheme? Please do so online, on paper, or in your head.


Your EPPA Customizes this 5 Tier ECA and makes it yours. It is your architecture of Processes – organized to reflect the Organization Chart.


EPPA – is covered here – in a former Blog Post. You are basically using the following template for each box on the org chart.

Tier 1 Content

Tier 1 Content delivers Orientation content on the Enterprise itself – and all of the business units, divisions, functions, departments, teams and individual job titles. Think about a short module – using any media – to overview each entity on the Enterprise organization chart. Some people need their own organization “tree branch” only, others need that plus other organizations as they interface with them. The intent of these is to orient the individual to the organization.

All of these content chunks/modules/lessons are highly sharable.

Tier 2 Content

Tier 2 contains all of the “advanced organizers” for the EPPA – The Enterprise Process Performance Architecture – and are determined via the PACT analysis efforts. Tier 2 is organized by the EPPA to ensure that the workflow of the processes themselves are central to the objectives for content: both Informational & Instructional.

This is where the analysis data is housed as Information/Instruction.

Tier 3 Content

Tier 3 is organized by the 17 categories of enabling K/S used in PACT Analysis efforts. And by a couple to many sub-categories for each.

This tight linkage between downstream design and upstream analysis is critical IMO.

The “enabling” Knowledge/Skill Matrices of my PACT Processes are organized using this list of K/S categories:

1. Company Policies/Procedures/Practices/ Guidelines
2. Laws, Regulations, Codes, Agreements, and Contracts
3. Industry Standards
4. Internal Organizations and Resources
5. External Organizations and Resources
6. Marketplace Knowledge
7. Product/Service Knowledge
8. Process Knowledge
9. Records, Reports, Documents, and Forms
10. Materials and Supplies
11. Tools/Equipment/Machinery
12. Computer Systems/Software/Hardware
13. Personal/Interpersonal
14. Management/Supervisory
15. Business Knowledge and Skills
16. Professional/Technical
17. Functional Specific

If you had each of the following types of content in your current inventory, which Tier would park it in?

  • Negotiations
  • Verbal Communications
  • Completing Expense Reports
  • The Overseas Operations Division
  • The North American Operations Division
  • HR
  • Sales
  • How Develop a Departmental Budget
  • How to Develop an Instructional Design Document and Conduct Reviews & Updates
  • Safety Regulations in the Plants
  • Safety Regulations in the Offices

Note: The content organized via the above framework (for Tier 3) addresses both Tasks and Topics at three levels of depth: awareness, knowledge and skill.

Note that the difference between Awareness and Knowledge simply suggest a depth in the topic needed – and is to be taken as a signal by the Design Team (of Master Performers) to the Instruction/Information Developers that sometimes you need deep content and sometimes you do not.

Much of this content can be deployed by more flexibly and less costly modes than traditional Instructor-led, such as via eDocs, video, e-learning or ILT Online (synchronous or asynchronous), etc.

Tier 4 Content and Tier 5 Content

Tier 4 and 5 content are “How To” in nature and together have a 1:1 relationship with every Tier 2 chunk of content…typically for me at the AoP level of organization/content compiling/clustering/segmenting.

The only difference between Tier 4 and 5 – is that Tier 4 is for more than one Target Audience and Tier 5 is for one defined Target Audience. Tier 4 content is usually more difficult to develop than Tier 5 content.

PUSH Target Audience Examples of  Modular Curriculum Paths

Product Managers

CAD Path Prod Mgrs

Here organized menus of modularized online, booklet and ILT courses led to a downselect by the Learner and Supervisor to create a unique plan and schedule and budget.

Not everyone needs everything on the Path. Many of the modules on this Path (Menu) were very sharable with other target audiences in the company.

Consumer Sales Reps

CAD Path Call Center Sales

Inbound Telephone Sales and Service. Here large cadres of Learners were all taken through a linear path with testing (Flunk Out) points.

Everyone gets everything on the Path. Most of the content on this Path were very unique and not sharable with other target audiences in the company, with the exception of the product/service knowledge which was sharable with several other target audiences in the company.


CAD Path Supervisors

The Supervisor’s Path above, and the Zone Manager’s Path below, provide a visual of the menu of blended learning content and qualification tests, in association with a Planning Guide, for the unique planning and scheduling of learning by the individual and their boss.

Not everyone needs everything on the Path. Many of the modules on this Path were very sharable with other supervisor target audiences in the company.

Zone Managers


Zone Managers began their planning with this path if they had been through the prior, Supervisors Path. If not, they actually began with both the Supervisors Path/Planning Guide AND the Zone Manager’s Path/Planning Guide to construct an Individual Development Plan.

Not everyone needs everything on either of the Paths. Many of the modules on this Path were very sharable with other management target audiences in the company.

PUSH Target Audience Examples

They take whatever management has allowed them to see and take – as some participation may take budget plus time away from regular duties.

They get only what has been developed and/or acquired for the PUSH Target Audiences.

Think sibling hand-me-downs. Yeah. That.

It’s a Business Decision.

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