L&D: For a Quick Switch to Performance Improvement Beyond Learning

I Was Taught All About This Back in 1979

I joined a Training organization in 1979 – right after college and was given both Bob Mager and Peter Pipe’s book: Analyzing Performance Problems – and Tom Gilbert’s book: Human Competence.

In every ISD project I’ve been involved in – our goal was to produce performance-based Instruction – of many modes and media blends – AND – help the client see the non-K/S based root causes for performance problems that might need something beyond Instruction to resolve.

Newbies need Formal Instruction & Performance Supports on the front-end of their Learning Curve. To avoid picking up poor practices from others or elsewhere.

Incumbents probably need a change in the Process itself and/or in the Environmental Assets – if there are issues regarding the Performance that they are a part of – and not more Training/Learning.


My EPPI Framework presents 12 key variable sets that need to be examined.


Note: This “Fishbone Diagram” is an extension of the Ishikawa Diagram from Japan in the 1950s.

So my methods – developed in the 1980s and 1990s – allowed for ReUse of the Instructional Analysis data – for a quick, smooth, segue to a Performance Improvement approach.

My ISD methods are labeled PACT. My Performance Improvement methods are labeled EPPI.



For Formal 10. For more Formal 20. And for Guiding the 70.

Guiding the 70?

Yes – because most new learners/Performers do not know what they need to know and what they know that might be wrong.


The Informal 70 and 20 – will happen anyway. This isn’t about that. It’s about helping the learner/Performer recognize Foo Foo when they come across it.

PACT’s 2 Stages…




EPPI’s 2 Stages…


Resources Beyond the Many Many Many Free Resources on My Web Site

See the Resource Tab for more about the resources for Free as well as the resources for a Fee.


For more information about these 6 books and others – please go – here.

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