L&D: Your Analysis Doesn’t Always Have To Result In a Learning Solution

The 3 Process Performance Variable-Sets of EPPI

If you are in ISD/ Training/ Learning/ Knowledge Management … IMO you should be looking at the 3 variables – or some other versions – if the request for your services/products is driven by a perceived or real PROBLEM – versus a need for training people new to the job.


Even then you should look at the 3 sets of variables to help the new people understand them as well.

1st Look At the Process Itself

Is there a standard Process – both rigid enough AND flexible enough – for what is required?

Is it even possible for it to deliver Outputs that achieve the right Outcomes … and by that I mean that the Outputs meet the needs of the Stakeholders?

If not – fix that.


2nd Look At the Environmental Enablers of the Process

This includes everything non-people:

Data/Information, Materials/Supplies, Tools/Equipment, Facilities/Grounds, Budget/Headcount, and the Culture/Consequences.

They are either adequate to the needs of the Process – or they are not.


3rd Look At the Human Enablers of the Process

This includes everything about the people themselves – and what they bring to the Process Party:

Awareness/Knowledge/Skills, Physical Attributes, Psychological Attributes, Intellectual Attributes, and Personal values.

They are either adequate to the needs of the Process – or they are not.


My Big Picture View of EPPI 

A view from the late 1990s/early 2000s…


My Adaptation of The Ishikawa Diagram 

The EPPI Fishbone


Focus on the Performance Competence Requirements

The Tasks – the Outputs – and the Requirements for both.


Understand the Balanced Requirements of the Stakeholders – Beyond the Downstream Customer

If you don’t understand who the Stakeholders are – and what they require – well beyond the downstream Customer – you will miss the mark.


Learn a Little Bit About All of the Possible Improvement Interventions

Then you can call in – and possibly hand-off the effort – to the appropriate experts – if L&D shouldn’t keep “the lead” on continuing the improvement drive.


Gaps Exist Well Beyond Awareness/Knowledge/Skills

Meet the real needs of the Customer/ Enterprise – don’t just take an order for Training – say yes to that but learn how to politely insist on a quick analysis to get to the variables that need to be taught/learned – and find the gaps QUICKLY.

Avoid Analysis Paralysis.



Here is a 25 page PDF of my chapter in the ISPI 2006 edition of the Handbook of Human Performance Technology:

Modeling Mastery Performance and Systematically Deriving the Enablers for Performance Improvement – by Guy W. Wallace, CPT – Chapter 11 of the Handbook of Human Performance Technology – 3rd Edition – 2006.  This methodology was first published in this 1984 article in ISPI’s (then NSPI’s) PIJ – Performance & Instruction Journal way back in November 1984.

And here is an article from 1995 on Stakeholder Analysis:

The Customer Is King – Not! – 15 page PDF – the original version of the article published in the Journal for Quality and Participation in March 1995 – address Balancing Conflicting Stakeholder Requirements, and suggests that the Customer is Not the King of Stakeholders (despite the unfortunate slogans from the Quality movement despite Deming’s admonitions about slogans). Balancing Conflicting Stakeholder Requirements – Wallace – March 1995 AQP

And the version in ISPI’s November 2011 Performance Express:  performancexpress.org-Stakeholders Beyond the Customers The Customer Is King Not

There are many other resources on this site, including hundreds of Blog Posts (out of the 2650+ that have been posted), articles, books, videos and audio podcasts that address Performance Analysis. Search the Resource Tab.

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