T&D: More on Backward Chaining in ISD

I Actually Start with the Target Audience(s)

You know, who is Primary, Secondary and Tertiary.

And 2nd what are their Performance Competence requirements. And 3rd what Knowledge/Skills do then therefore need? And 4th, what already exists?

Then use that Analysis in Design before Development before Pilot Testing before Revision & Release.

This first graphic frames the approach for a known Target (Audience) and some narrow task-set.


In Development

Once the above stuff is known it is Designed … and then Developed.


The best Test is a Performance Test/ series of Performance Tests, to test the ability to perform tasks to produce outputs to the stakeholder requirements. Which the analysis should have captured along w/ the enabling K/Ss. And the Design framed appropriately before Development.

My Project Planning/Management Frame

I do Project Planning before Analysis before Design before Development before Pilot Testing before Revision & Release. Here is my Project Planning framework for my my ADDIE-like methodology – MCD – Modular Curriculum Development/Acquisition.


In Analysis

Understanding the Performance of Tasks leading to Outputs – then leads to Stakeholder Requirements – then leads to the enabling K/Ss – then leads to what needs to be learned and how: formally or informally and remembered or supported.


Focus on the Performance

Regardless of whether you start your data gathering in Analysis on the left or right – you need to understand what drives what – and that happens right to left – when Backward Chaining.


Establishing Performance Measures 

Which should be reflected like a mirror in your Learning Objectives


Establishing the K/S Requirements

Which aren’t all equal – and should not be addressed as if all were equal – which is established in Design after Analysis.


I Get a Sense in Analysis For Design Treatment

Once you understand the Performance Requirements and the Performance Context you should be able to “Well Imagine” what is feasible as Deployment methods (modes & media) and what is not.


Bottom Line

Focus on the Performance Requirements – and Enable Them.



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