T&D: What Dictates Delivery Channel Options?

The Performance Context & The Learning Context

Before & After the MON – Moment of Need – in the Flow/Workflow – is recognized.


One can learn “In the Flow” of work – the Performance Context – by many means (modes & media). After – immediately after the demand for performance is recognized.

But sometimes that is totally insufficient. And sometimes that is totally sufficient.

Usually it is insufficient when the Risks and Rewards are GREAT – because that Performance is usually – not always – tricky. Complex. Difficult to perform. Difficult to learn.


Difficult to perform is often difficult to learn.

And some YouTube Video or QRG – Quick Reference Guide (Guidance/ Job Aid/ Performance Support) just won’t cut it when it comes to most High Risk/ High Reward Performance.

It may be ideal to support performance – in that Moment of Need – just as a Pilot’s Pre-Flight Checklist supports the MON demand because there’s a lot to recall – and rather than risk the aircraft and it’s cargo – people and/or things – on the low probability that every Pilot will recall everything that could be/ should be on that checklist – we augment the memory and prior knowledge/skills required.

Learning in “The Flow” can sometimes be sufficient. Sometimes because it’s just easy – and one trusts that the performer – and every performer – has the right incoming knowledge/skills to the performance situation – so that some YouTube video, or QRG or Audio file or ChatBot, etc., can get ‘er done.

But that’s because of the incoming knowledge and skills compared to the required knowledge and skills required in the flow. And because the risks/rewards for mistakes are tolerable.


One can learn before being in “The Flow” of Work – and then call upon their knowledge/skills when the demand is recognized and responded to.

First one would need to learn how to recognize the demand for performance – the stimulus – and which performance responses to render. And then learn the varied performance responses. Building upon the incoming knowledge/skills of the learner/Performer.

3 Sets of T&D Delivery Channels

Or Deployment Platform categories: Group Paced, Self Paced and Coached. Each can employ one or more Modes and various Media.

Group Paced

  • Classroom (ILT – Instructor Led Training)
  • Classroom/Lab (ILT with special equipment requirements)
  • Webinar (Live)
  • Etc.

Self Paced

  • Webinar (Recorded)
  • eLearning/CBT
  • Videos
  • Audios
  • Reading Assignments (paper or electronic)
  • Etc.


  • Structured OJT (Guidance/ Job Aids/ Performance Support – for the Coach or Mentor)
  • Un-Structured OJT (a.k.a.: Informal Learning – albeit named Informal Learning – where the Coach or Mentor is on their own – given the title of the U-OJT)

Back in Analysis Before Design Before Development

When conducting Instructional Analysis, I’m always thinking about what are the Delivery Channel/Deployment Platform implications from what I am learning – regarding both the on-the-job “performance requirements” – and where the performers might be learning “how to perform.”

I also bounce off these thoughts – what I believe I have learned – with my Project Steering Team and with the Master Performers involved in Analysis – as a reality check – before the Analysis has been completed and the Design starts.

In Formal Design. Not Design embedded in Development – which my methods also allow  for/encourage. But in formal Design where the content is mapped – via a Backward Chain approach. Design before any Development begins.

The Analysis data – the Performance data – dictates the Performance Objectives which dictates the Learning Objectives. In my methods, the Performance Objectives are the terminal objectives – and the Learning Objectives are the enabling objectives.

Your methods and language may vary.

Then the Performance/Learning Objectives – at a Module/Lesson level – dictate the Application Exercises – APPOs – which might dictate the need for any Demonstration (SLOW-MOTION DEMOs and Regular Speed DEMOs – or both).

And then the Analysis data of Enabling Knowledge/Skills dictates the Information required – the INFOs.

So Objectives dictate APPOs required which dictate DEMOs required which dictate the INFOs required.

From an earlier Post…


The Performance Context dictates the Modes & Media for the use of Guidance/ Job Aids/ Performance Support. The ease of performance with guidance – Risks & Rewards of trial and error where mistakes might be made and addressed immediately (or later) – and the practicality of stopping the performance to seek such guidance.

The Performance Requirements dictate the Modes & Media as well. Can you learn to drive a car from reading about it? That’s either Classroom/Lab – or an eLearning/Simulator combo – or a Coach in a car – or all 3.


See this short Post – from earlier this week – about INFOs-DEMOs-APPOs via a Backward Chain approach to ISD – here.

And for even more – see my award winning (from ISPI in 2002) 1999 book: lean-ISD – available as a Kindle and paperback – and also as a free PDF – here.

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