T&D: Direct Instruction vs Whatever-However-Whenever

Know Your Audience

And don’t confuse those on either end of the Novice-Expert continuum. One size does not fit all. Of course, those in the Expert arena might simply pass on your Instruction and seek happiness (information-wise for their own learning) elsewhere.

Those in the broad middle are trickier. Pilot Test your offerings when in doubt.


Quoting Richard E. Clark*

Note: I added the bolding.

Advocates for various forms of constructivism and guidance appear to agree
about the utility of many forms of instructional support. For example, both
groups recommend the “modeling of more advanced solutions of the task” and
“focusing the attention of the learner by marking relevant task features” (Pea,
2004, p. 432), as well as providing students with authentic problems that represent those found in the setting where we expect students to use the knowledge
they have learned (e.g., Savery & Duffy, 2001) and using outcome measures that
require students to apply what they have learned (not simply memorize facts).
We seem also to agree about the benefits of varied practice and the teaching of
declarative knowledge when performance requires that students adapt the skills
being learned to handle novel contexts or problems (e.g., Jonassen, 1997; van
Merriënboer & Kirschner, 2007) and providing supportive and corrective feedback during part- and whole-task practice exercises on some (not all) learning
tasks (e.g., Savery & Duffy, 2001). Finally, there appears to be widespread agreement that all instructional support should be gradually faded when students’
expertise reaches the level where additional support damages learning (Kayluga
et al., 2003; Kayluga & Sweller, 2004).

*How Much and What Type of Guidance is Optimal?  – https://hpttreasures.files.wordpress.com/2018/11/clark_guidance_chapter_2009.pdf


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One comment on “T&D: Direct Instruction vs Whatever-However-Whenever

  1. Thanks Guy for sharing this video of Robert Horn together. A great inspiration, genius, teacher and a wonderful friend from San Francisco back in the 80s. If you talk to him again say a warm hello from Alan Woontner


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