T&D: Build Your Instruction On a Solid Foundation

Analysis establishes the terminal Performance Goals, and then the Instructional Goals and Objectives.

At least it does in my PACT Analysis Methods – which is covered in my 1999 book: lean-ISD.


From “lean-ISD” (1999)

Target Audience Data

Target Audience Data provides clarity regarding the target audiences. What group constitutes the primary target audience for the T&D? What group is secondary? Is there a tertiary audience?
The analyst and project team need to understand things such as
• Who the customers of the prospective T&D are
• Where they are
• Where they have come from and where they might go
• Their needs, constraints, and environmental factors that will affect their ability to learn or apply what they are to learn


Performance Models
Once the target audience data is collected, it’s necessary to understand exactly why audience members are on the payroll―what is their expected performance? How are the incumbent jobholders doing? For example
• Are there gaps between actual performance and ideal performance?
• Do jobholders have areas where they struggle to meet the demands of the job?
• Which are the business-critical aspects of job performance that must be addressed?
• Where should extra emphasis be placed on any future performance tasks that are tougher to do?

Performance Models clarify performance expectations in terms of outputs produced, measures for those outputs, tasks performed, and who performs the tasks.


Knowledge/Skill Matrices
The Knowledge/Skill Matrix answers questions such as
• What are the enabling knowledge and skills required for high performance?
• Which knowledge and skills impact performance the most?
• How difficult will it be for our target audiences to learn enabling knowledge and skills?
• How volatile is the content?
• What depth of coverage is required for the target audience in order to learn “just enough” to be able to apply their new knowledge and skills?
The PACT analysis process is a highly structured method for systematically deriving the enabling knowledge and skills.


Existing T&D Assessments
The fourth type of analysis conducted during Curriculum Architecture Design, Modular Curriculum Development, and Instructional Activity Development is that of assessing existing T&D. The purpose of this analysis is to answer questions such as
• How do previous investments in T&D meet the needs articulated in the two prior analysis steps?
• Which of the existing T&D is fine as is?
• Which T&D needs modifying or updating?
• Which existing T&D should not be used in the new T&D product line for the target audiences?

This assessment is conducted to select from all existing T&D the training that matches the
“shopping” criteria generated from the Performance Models and Knowledge/Skill Matrices. The intent is to not reinvent T&D wheels (or even any T&D spokes) that might serve well in a new performance-based curricula. The intent is to salvage the shareholders’ prior T&D investments and reuse them if at all possible. If the T&D isn’t very good and is not worthy of salvage, then get rid of it—at least for the target audiences of this particular PACT Process project.

What’s In Your Analysis Data?

For Free: Book PDFs – several of Guy’s books are offered as free PDFs – including “lean-ISD” – and please note: most are also available “for sale” in either paperback or Kindle versions.

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