T&D: The Practice-Feedback-Reflection Cycle

A LinkedIn Inspired Post

A conversation on LinkedIn started by Brandon Carson with comments by Alex Salas – this past Tuesday – caused me to jump in with my two cents – here.

It was because of the mention of Thiagi – who I blame (Just Kidding) for making me think deeply about his seemingly contrarian views – and has done so (repeatedly) since I first met him back in the early 1980s.

Bottom line – I was attempting to insert Feedback into a conversation about Experience and Reflection. You don’t learn much (but you do learn something, perhaps) from watching a video.

Unless it’s an Awareness or Knowledge level that’s required – then a video may be sufficient – given the “Task” to be learned and the “Existing/Incoming Knowledge/Skills levels” of the Target Audience.

As always – it depends.

Webp.net-gifmaker (90)

In an Enterprise Learning Context

It’s all about Performance Competence.


I use these concepts in Lesson Mapping – and have since 1990.


In my Chain of INFO-DEMO-APPO – I design the APPOs (Application Exercises) first.


In the APPO Design I need to include time and perhaps mechanisms for something along these lines:

  • Set-Up/Instructions
  • Do It/Practice with Feedback
  • Review It/More Feedback about everyone’s Practice
  • Reflection in Preparation for the Next Practice Opportunity

Narrow Feedback to Shape the Next Attempt

The late Don Tosti taught me a lot about Feedback – and he kindly addressed it in this 2008 Video we did together – here.


Thiagi taught me a lot about Reflection – in the Debriefing.


Sometimes Informal Learning – via a Standalone Video as but one example – is fine, adequate to the need. But not always. It’s about the Risks and Rewards in the Performance Context and Requirements.

If it’s OK – point to the Resources – and then get out of the way – so to speak.

If not – get in the way – so to speak – with Direct Instruction. And Feedback. And Guided Reflection.


See this short Video I did with Thiagi back in 2009 – here.

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