1st Three School of PACT Video Podcasts Now Available.

The School of PACT – is “in VIDEO PODCAST session” – anytime you need it/ want it/ gotta have it!

We begin the series with a Podcast Introduction to The PACT Processes. Then a Podcast overview of the 4 Phases of a CAD effort. Then another Podcast with an additional level of detail about “7 Steps for processing of the analysis data” in the Phase 3 – Design – DTM: Design Team Meeting.

All are presented in Blog Post form: with instructional design wrapped around the Video Podcast in terms of preparation for viewing, and what one might do post-viewing. To learn and master and someday coach others. And all are available on Google Video so one might download their own personal copies.

There are over 12 planned in the series.

PACT is: ISD/ ID/ SAT – Instructional Systems Design/ Instructional Design/ Systematic Approach to Training. PACT includes and is much more than A-D-D-I-E.

PACT is based on a data logic, reducing the wasted efforts at unfocused analysis and design and development – reducing/eliminating “unnecessary costs” – both first costs and life cycle costs.

My book: lean-ISD covers the PACT Processes for T&D/ Learning/ Knowledge Management – and is available as a free 404-page PDF at http://www.eppic.biz/

A PDF copy of the first national presentation of the CAD methods using a Group Process, from 1985, is available here.


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Video Podcasts Now On Google Video For Downloading

You may have already seen the 1st Blog Post and Video Podcast of the School of PACT series – 13 planned – and with many, many additional relevant topics/tasks for me to tackle regarding the PACT Processes for T&D/ Learning/ Knowledge Management.

I will put out a new one every 2-4 weeks- or more. I am also intending on posting them on Google Video as I Blog about them – the Blog Postings intended to both present the Video Podcast – and to frame a “Learning Process/Progression/Path” – both adopt-able and adapt-able – as needed of course – for you – the reader/learner/potential Performer.

I use Google so that everyone that wants one can have a personal copy. I treasure my copies of old videos (Rummler, Rackham, etc.) and audios – I have Rackham speaking on SPIN from 1981 somewhere. They and others always freely shared. So shall I.

The list below will be constantly updated – as this post will be used as “link transition points” to both those Google Videos and the Pursuing Performance Blog (PP Blog) Postings – from a link on the Blog’s static but active portion of the layout template.

Note that there will be “other video links” here on topics related to performance-based Instructional Design, Instructional Systems Design, Systematic Approach to Training, ID, ISD, SAT, etc. from myself and from others.

In most-recent-first order:
Videos from Guy W. Wallace…

School of PACT 02b – 7 CAD Design Steps – at Google Video – on the PP Blog – next released Video Podcast in the School of PACT series – focused on the the detailed “7 Design Steps” used to “process the PACT analysis data” in the Design Team Meeting in Phase 3 of CAD – Curriculum Architecture Design – of the PACT Processes for T&D/ Learning/ Knowledge Mangement. This particular Video Podcast augments Video Podcast #2 – CAD.

School of PACT 02 – CAD – Curriculum Architecture Design – at Google Video – on the PP Blog – 2nd in the series of at least 13 Video Podcasts planned. CAD is the macro-design level of PACT’s 3 levels of ISD design. CAD is the systems engineering/architectural set of ISD/ID methods for developing a T&D Path/ Learning Continuum for one or more Target Audiences. CADs lead to MCD efforts (the ADDIE-level of PACT). This Podcast on CAD will be augmented by several other Podcasts with topics closely related/intertwined with the CAD level of PACT, to provide more details.

Changing Tires on a Moving Truck – at Google Video – on PP Blog Post – please indulge my silliness with this 1:42 (m:s) Video that plays out some thought given to “parallel processing” for some types of change. Where you cannot stop, change, and then restart. As clients stated their challenge to be akin to “changing the tires on a moving truck.” Probably a total waste of your time for most of you – unless you plan/manage multiple workstreams of systems in transition and change. It’s how I might represent a divide-and-conquor approach to complex change.

Enterprise Wiki Architecture – at Google Videoon PP Blog Post – thoughts about how I’d architect the structure of wikis for every process, for every performer’s use. 7:42 (m:s).

School of PACT 01 – PACT Introat Google Video on PP Blog Post – The first in the series. 10:00 (m:s). Overview of the 5 methodology-sets of PACT, the customer-teams and ISD-roles, and the resources available.

Videos from others/of others – that are my personal favorites – and that I’d like to share with others interested in PACT…

Dr. Richard E. Clark and Allen Munro – Learning Research at the Center for Cognitive Technologiesweb link – Part of the Rossier School of Education Brown Bag Series, Richard Clark and Allen Munro discuss topics such as: cognitive load theory, instructional design, direct instruction, cognitive task analysis, creative technology, see one, do one, teach one, mental simulation, tactical planning/instructional/assessment tools. 1 hour and 2 minutes. Excellent! From May 2008.

Dr. Ruth Clark – Leveraging the Virtual Classroom for Effective Learningweb link – 1 hour 18 minutes from Dr. Clark – part of the University of Maryland Baltimore Campus (UMBC) series of ISD- November 2008. Excellent!

Clive Shepherd – Welcome to the Virtual Classroomweb link – An excellent 9+minute introduction to the basics of Virtual Classrooms – November 2007. Excellent!

Thiagi- Rapid Instructional Design – web link PP Blog Post on this Video Resource – from 2008 from UMBC University of Maryland Baltimore Campus. 1:47 (hour:minutes). Excellent!

Neil Rackham – Instructional Design Criteria web link – PP Blog Post on this Video Resource – from 1981. 10 design criteria are talked through by Neil for MTEC. Excellent!

Geary Rummler – Performance-Based Training web link – PP Blog Post on this Video Resource – from 1981. Another MTEC video. Excellent!

*** *** *** *** *** ***
Audio Podcasts from Guy W. Wallace…

1 – Intro to PACT

2 – The CAD Process

3 – The MCD Process

4 – The IAD Process

5 – Building PACT Capability & Capacity

6 – Practitioner Qualification Certification

7 – PACT Flexibility – 6 Case Studies

8 – From ISD to HPT with PACT and EPPI

9 – PACT and the ECA and the WELL

10 – PACT and Customer Collaboration

11 – PACT Project Acceleration Strategies for Rapid ISD

12 – PACT Project Predictability

To be completed later…

Audio Podcasts from others…

My lean-ISD book as a free 404-page PDF.

I hope that you find these of value for your “distance learning” on Instructional Design/Instructional Systems Design – and the PACT Processes.

Additional free PACT resources from Guy W. Wallace and EPPIC Inc. are available at http://www.eppic.biz/

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The PACT Process Facilitator – Part 3 of 3

7. Write It Down and then Discuss
One of my first rules or guidelines to new facilitators is

“Write down the first thing that someone says!”

Turn words floating in the air into something black and white (depending, of course, on your paper and pen colors). This almost always forces a reaction from the remaining members of the group you are facilitating. If not, ask for their reaction.

I always FOREWARN the group I am facilitating that this is exactly what I’m going to do. If someone will be so brave as to volunteer a response to my question or statement, I’ll write it down to prompt their reaction. Either it stays, or someone takes exception to it and the group dialogue begins. Do we have a consensus or not? Until I write it down, I’m not always sure. It’s the reaction of the group, verbally or nonverbally (those clues and cues again), that tell me.

I tell the group that today they are on the payroll to provide the inputs, per my process. They should all be okay with not being in total agreement, and they must be okay with questioning and challenging each other. We are usually in a hurry and need to accomplish plenty, and time is a wastin’. The best way to keep the process moving is to ask/seek what you’re looking for, write down the first response, and then ask for group confirmation, questions, comments, and concerns.

If the facilitator asks and then does nothing with the response, he/she seems to be waiting for the correct answer. That will tend to inhibit the free flow of inputs/responses that you may be seeking. I always write it down, unless it is so wrong that I don’t want to overly embarrass the individual who volunteered the wrong stuff. Then I rephrase my question so drastically, or shift gears and go into something that I may have forgotten, and then ask again (usually with an example or two of what I’m looking for and hope that the group doesn’t notice the swift move I’ve put on them).

Of course some may know exactly what I’ve done and will usually appreciate it. They bet that if they make a similar faux pas, I’ll help save their face, too. This fear-reduction technique is especially important when the group of people being facilitated are not totally comfortable with each other because they don’t know each other, or they do know each other and they don’t necessarily get along.

Again, this is not passive facilitation, which might be the appropriate route to take for your assignment. This is aggressive, confrontational, proactive facilitation. This is the quickest route to getting the most data out of a group process. You need to decide the situational appropriateness of this method for your needs and for your personality style. Again, it always depends. Sorry.

8. Use of Humor
Humor, done right, sets the stage. The message to be sent by humor (and can be said out loud to be declarative) is that while our goal is serious, let’s not take ourselves too seriously. Let’s loosen up a bit.

Self-deprecating humor is best. It offends no one, because you (the facilitator) are the butt of all/most of it.

Use of yourself as the “bozo on the bus” is effective because you can make points and laugh at yourself. And if you later inadvertently make someone else the butt of your jokes or points, you can recover by turning it back on yourself. For example: “Oh, that was smart . . . I guess you’re joining me in the duh-uh club. Hey, but I’m still president.”

When providing examples and non-examples, use yourself as the non-example and others in the room as the example. “Pete is competent and will get the training, and if he does well, he’ll get the raise. Guy is still screwing up, and if the training doesn’t take hold or he doesn’t use what he learns, he’s outta here!”

Don’t use off-color humor, sexist, racist, age-ist, or any non-PC (politically correct) humor. Make sure the butt of your jokes is most often YOU!!! Who could complain?

Then, after establishing myself as the biggest bozo on the bus, I often include others in my other jokes/wisecracks—but only if I am darn sure that they’ll be okay with it, because they have started picking on me (in fun of course), or they have made fun of themselves in some way. Again, this is tricky and you’ve got to be pretty darn sure of what you’re doing.

If humor doesn’t come naturally to you, try this first at your next family outing before you attempt to foist any humor on the next group or team you are asked to facilitate. See what kind of reaction you get (from people who know you and love you much better than this possible group of strangers who won’t be quite sure where you’re coming from).

9. Controlling the Process and Participants
The facilitator can never let one individual, or a small group within the larger group, dominate the meeting.

The best thing to do if this begins to happen to you is to thank the person for their input and then ask someone else for theirs. Then shift your style to aim specific questions at specific individuals. “Bob what do you think the next set of tasks are for this output?”

Take the offenders aside at the next break and explain that you need a balance of inputs to ensure a consensus is forming. While you appreciate their contributions, you hope they understand what you’re doing. Usually they get the message and back off. Maybe they’ll need another reminder or two. Sometimes none of these tactics work.

I have disinvited participants from my meetings. That means I asked them to leave. I’ve been at the point that their participation was so dysfunctional that I asked them to leave and when they resisted, I suggested that I would call their boss to insist that they be requested to return to the office. That’s when they either drastically changed their behavior, or they left. I had no choice. They were so disruptive that they were wasting the time and productivity of everyone else.

Of course, I was at the last straw on the camel’s back and it was broken. Prior to that I had taken them aside during a specially called break and warned them of my next move (asking them/insisting that they depart the process). Prior to that I had taken them aside during a regular break to discuss their participation style and the effect on the group and our progress. Prior to that I had tried to manage their behavior during the meeting by asking out loud that they let others participate more. Prior to that I had tried to get the group to help me self-manage the problem participant by asking for their opinions in response to the one individual’s points.

I had exhausted all possibilities. I had tried and I was done and so were they.
When push comes to shove, I have to shove back. I am the person that the group looks to control the process and continue our progress. I can’t blame their hesitancy to act. Otherwise, I am allowing someone (or more than one person) to waste all of our collective time and energies. Don’t let this happen to you. Take charge, take action. It isn’t pleasant, but it is the job of the facilitator—at least in my view of the role of the proactive facilitator.

10. Legibility Rules for the Flip Chart Pages
Another of my favorite rules is

“Neatness does not count, legibility does.”

Maybe it just suits my personality best, being somewhat messy. Those that know me usually think differently. I’m a very structured person—I love structure and hate chaos. But once I get on a roll with the group, or more importantly, once they get on a roll, I don’t take a lot of time to write down their inputs/responses so carefully that I slow them down. I try to write fast.

In fact, I write so fast and furiously that I have to make sure I don’t violate the legibility rule that means so much to whomever has to word-process my work afterward. Even when I have word-processed my charts later, I have found that I was not always able to recall what the words were in my attempt to clean up my own mess.

So if you can’t do both, at least be legible if not always neat!

11. Beware of Group Think and Push Back
Group think is a danger. It is usually caused by one or more variables.

• A single dominant participant who intimidates everyone else
• Multiple dominant participants who are aligned
• Sometimes this is a high-level manager to whom most everyone else in the room reports
• A docile, lazy group easily dominated and that doesn’t want to work too hard
• A group of timid participants, unsure of themselves, and afraid of going against the grain of the stronger personalities

The key cause could be poor selection of the group members for the meeting, which sometimes is avoidable and sometimes is not.
More importantly, it’s caused by a facilitator who has let go of their control of the process and has let someone else facilitate from the other side of the U-shaped tables. Bad. Bad. Bad.

When I feel/think that group think is happening, I stop the process and confront the group. I ask them to go over their last inputs and give me their personal rationale for their decisions. I tell them (being declarative of course) of my concern and ask them to speak for themselves. Then I back up and go over the last inputs/responses very slowly, and reconfirm their inputs and their rationale.

If that doesn’t stop it, maybe nothing will, unless we change the entire nature of the group process. It may be avoided initially by making sure that the folks chosen for the group effort are strong enough to not fall into this trap.

12. Assigning Parking Lot Valets
The use of a “parking lot” for issues that arise that may not be timely in a very structured process, is a good idea. Post a flip chart on the wall and write “Issue Parking Lot” or something similar on the top, and then add things that are premature or we don’t ever intend to address in the meeting, so as not to forget them. At the end of the meeting, or sooner as appropriate, address them and close them out. Those that remain open will have to be addressed and resolved some other time and some other way.

I usually have two parking lots, one for open issues and one for closed issues, so everyone can see progress in addressing those that can be addressed in our meeting.

But I hate being the parking valet! It seems that I spend so much time parking everyone’s issues that I run myself ragged from one flip chart to another. So I’ve hit on this device—an improvement if you will. We hand out “stickies” and ask everyone to jot down their own issues and self-park them. Then at every review/preview checkpoint, we review what’s new in the open parking lot, and we take the time to see what can be parked in the other lot.

Try it. It gets your group more involved, makes them articulate their issues/concerns themselves, and gets their butts out of their seats on occasion, which may be the most beneficial aspect of the self-parking lot concept.

For more go to: www.eppic.biz

The 5-Tier Enterprise Content Architecture of the PACT Processes

The PACT Process’

“Enterprise Content Architecture”

sorts and stores your legacy content as well as your new modular content…not modules.

In PACT the term “Module” is a temporary design device used in CAD – Curriculum Architecture Design efforts…usually for “critical job performers in critical business processes” with high Risk/Reward issues and a desire by the internal client…and therefore by my client too…and now me…to address the Performance Competence capability of the Target Audiences with Formal Learning/ Training/ Knowledge Management.

And to inform/train and direct them to the tools of the job…including all of those learning tools that are really performance tools…for their directed informal learning needs AND their non-directed informal learning that will happen as they perform…hopefully getting better and better each time they do that particular performance cycle.

Since we always used this 5-Tier inventory framework/structure (going back to the mid-1980s) our clients saw the “reuse potential” go way up for each CAD effort they had us or others do. It was right there in each design.

Reused legacy training/instructional content on the T&D Path. We even “reused” the designs for “content-not-yet-built-but-already-designed-at-either-the-CAD-level-or-at-the-MCD-levels-from-prior-PACT-efforts. That’s when they saw the promise. Right at the front end of the T&D Path.
The T&D Path
The front end of the T&D path…or the top depending on the “path’s/menu’s” physical orientation…always starts with…self-paced…or Structured OJTs…addressing…
Orientations to the T&D/Learning/Knowledge Management systems and approach that I’ll be in….and then right into orientations about my new Company, Division/Business Unit, Function, Department, then to my new job, and then to the intra and inter departmental Process Performance teams that I’d be working on and what they are all about…performance-wise.
The “Advanced Organizers” Just Keep On Coming from Tier 1 Content
Then back to more about MY JOB including all of those Processes that I work in…from the context of the overall Enterprise Process Performance Architecture…and all of the Areas of Performance that break out from the processes that involve my job title.

And then a quick overview of the Outputs and key stakeholder requirements and Tasks for me and the others in any cross-functional/multi-job title effort…

Wow! But if done right and with not too much overkill in the bulk amount of content…and by informing me of how to find more on anything later…you can really put the learners/Performers
in their PERFORMANCE context. And do it just-in-time, quickly, and online if that makes sense. Now-a-days it usually does.

And now the learner, me, is ready for a few more Survival Skills that the immediate front-end of the Path is typically intended to address. Now it might be time for a face-to-face or voice-to-voice meeting with my boss using a structured interview provided in my next T&D Event on the Path – that will help ME figure out MY immediate assignments and upcoming assignments, from someone who may or may not have given it a lot of thought, or have time for thinking it out now.

Just in case…we structure this and put the onus on the learner/Performer.

Then the next step is a little collaboration between the boss and myself as we planned my T&D using the LMS to produce what is sometimes called an IDP…Individual Development Plan…starting from right where my last T&D Event ended. The boss could have had me do my own plan in a non-collaborative manner and then reviewed it in a discussion when she had the time, but my boss said she only did it that way if the timing was a real problem. Then she’d have delegated her role to someone else available and appropriate.

Later I found out that everything on My T&D Path to that point had been Tier 1 content. I can see it in the ECA they use here for “self-access” for both push and pull learners/Performers.

It doesn’t always work that way. Some of the more dangerous jobs around here have safety and/or security content BEFORE the structured interview with their boss or team lead. But not my job.

ECA Ent Content Arch
What’s Next on the T&D Path? Tier 2 Content.
What’s next are a bunch of Tier 2 Content online that walked me through each Areas of Performance for the Processes where I’ll be contributing. These were more in-depth advanced organizers.

Not only did it lay out the AoPs and their Outputs and key requirements/measures by stakeholder…it listed all of the Tasks per output with a Role/Responsibility Matrix that clarified all of the roles and who was responsible for what. And then it provided what it called the “typical performance issues” and their likely causes and an overview of the tips I’ll learn about in later content…in the “how to” content…on how to avoid these type issues and/or how to deal with them if un-avoidable or un-avoided.

And then it gave me lists of varying lengths of what it called enabling “awareness/ knowledge/ skills” that I’d need to master before getting to the “how to” content. For each Area of Performance – the AoP.

I understand that for some jobs in my new company, especially for internal transfers/laterals and promotions, that the candidates actually take some of this training before they and the organization agree on the job change. I guess if it scares off some potential internal hires then everyone wins. And some even get further into the Curriculum Content…they take some of the enabling content, known as Tier 3 content.

That’s where I’m off to now.
Tier 3 Content
The Tier 3 content is mostly online content. With a lot of static data from live sources and archived files on PDFs. And more interactive online content providing information for awareness, and highly interactive content for real knowledge-building and some basic skills-building.

The content that isn’t online is usually either a S-OJT or a U-OJT. Structured On-the-Job Training and unstructured OJT…but at least there’s a name/title to provide a little guidance. We have more U-OJT than S-OJT. Some of the OJT regardless of there being structure or not may require a Designated Coach versus a Coach.

And then the content in Tier 3 that isn’t online or deployed via some sort of OJT is in traditional group-paced, facilitator-led. Sometimes the facilitator has to be designated too. Otherwise local management can assign the delivery to anyone they choose…and live with the consequences I guess.

It provides more timing flexibility except when it might create risks regarding compliance issues. At least that’s their story.

But most of the content that is deployed via traditional group-paced, facilitator-led methods is reserved for the content of Tier 4 and Tier 5…the “how to” content.
Tier 4 and Tier 5 Content
Tier 4 and Tier 5 Content are a mix of blends of media deployment types, like the Tier 3 content. And while online content, both static and interactive, dominates the CONTENT warehouse shelves, there are more S-OJTs and Group-Paced offerings here than in Tier 3 content.

And I figured out that there is one offering between these two Tiers…for each Tier 2 offering. For every Tier 2 there is either a Tier 4 or 5.

So what I’ve been doing since the Orientations at the front of my T&D Path/IDP is getting in-depth Advanced Organizers in each Tier2, taking some of the key enabling K/S content BEFORE getting to the “How To” content. And some of this is obvious, especially for the short content chunks. But some of this is going on in some of the longer T&D Events where there is some mixing of Tier 2 and 3 and 4 or 5 in the same Event.

In looking at some of my “paths” through all of this content, several of the Tier 3 content items served me multiple times as enablers for more than one AoP. And as I look at the remaining T&D items on my path I’m betting that I’ll notice that more and more.

I think that’s why the people here seem to have a common/shared language for everything – processes, outputs, tasks and even the ISSUES! They seem totally in-sync.

I guess they’ve been down this path that I’m on, in at least a similar manner. There does seem to be a fair logic to it all. Very performance oriented – and not content oriented. Even the gaps in the curriculum warehouse are labeled.

And that I’m told will start you on a more effective Informal Learning effort. I know there is more to my job than what’s been covered in formal content. And I sure feel fully prepared to dive into those now-chartered waters.

The only place that this approach wouldn’t work well is where the entire job is bleeding/leading edge stuff. And those jobs are probably the exception rather than the rule at most places.

Learn more in my book, availble as a free 404-page PDF: lean-ISD

Go to: http://www.eppic.biz

Performance Competence By Design – Not Learning By Chance

When Informal Learning – Learning By Chance – was not a viable business option…

CAD – Curriculum Architecture Design efforts are typically large scale, or just critically important process targets, where the goal is to model ideal performance requirements in terms of Process, the Areas of Performance within that “process” and its one-or-many Outputs and their Measures and the associated Tasks and Roles/Responsibilities.

Once that “Performance Competence” has been defined by a team of Master Performers…they continue by systematically deriving all of the knowledge/skills, using 17 categories.

Next, existing T&D is assessed for its re-use purposes in this CAD.

After a “gate review” with the Project Steering Team to review the data and seek approval or changes to it before it is used in the systematic Design process for this level of ISD, the Design Team meets to develop a T&D Path of T&D Events and Modules (books and chapters). That designs identifies the T&D Path…or Path with many mini-menus arranged visually to help communicate the T&D/ Learning/ Knowledge Management learning continuum…

…that is always “as flexible as feasible and as rigid as required” to meet the “just-in-time” needs of the varied learners/Performers in a job, process team, etc., to become Performance Competentnot to learn some things.

My experience-base in this area of ISD comes from 74 CAD projects since 1982. The full list follows. Quick overviews of each project are available on my web site at http://www.eppic.biz/

The CAD Project History of Guy W. Wallace….

#74 Eli Lilly Global Clinical Trial Process 2004
#73 Norfolk Naval Shipyard Production Zone Managers and Supervisors 2003
#72 Verizon Consumer Sales Center Personnel 2001
#71 GTE Service Corporation/Verizon Billing Center Personnel 2000
#70 General Motors University Brand Management—Europe 1999
#69 Eli Lilly and Company District Sales Managers 1999
#68 General Motors University Brand Management—North America 1999
#67 BankAmerica Corporation Financial Relationship Managers 1998
#66 General Motors University Internal Controls 1998
#65 Siemens Building Technologies, Inc. Sales Engineering 1998
#64 General Motors University MFD Area Managers 1998
#63 General Motors University Global Dealer Auditors 1998
#62 BankAmerica Corporation Retail Branch Personnel 1997
#61 Eli Lilly and Company Leadership and Management 1997
#60 General Motors Tool & Die Supervisors 1997
#59 Bandag, Inc. Franchise Dealership Management
Personnel and Bandag Sales Personnel 1996

#58 Amoco Coaching and Support 1996
#57 Amoco Project BEST 1996
#56 Bellcore Tech Web Masters 1996
#55 General Motors Product Engineers 1996
#54 Sphinx Pharmaceuticals Combinatorial Chemists 1996
#53 Valuemetrics, Inc. Associate and Senior Associate 1995
#52 Ford Motor Company Engineering 1994
#51 AT&T Network Systems Global Contract Management 1994
#50 Novacor, Corunna Site Operations Management and 1994
Self-regulated Team
#49 Spartan Stores/ISSC Companywide HQ Staff 1993
#48 Data General Sales 1993
#47 Abbott Laboratories Market Management, Product 1993
Management, and Sales Management
#46 Hewlett Packard Order Fulfillment (Order Processing, 1993 Quotes, Collections)
#45 Amoco Team Training 1993
#44 Imperial Bondware/Federal Paperboard Sales Training 1993
#43 Commerce Clearing House (CCH) Sales Representative and Sales 1993
#42 AT&T Network Systems Product Management and Market 1993
#41 Ford Design Institute Engineering 1992
#40 Detroit Ball Bearing Field Sales Managers 1992
#39 Digital Equipment Corporation Program Management 1991
#38 British Petroleum—America Front-line Retail Personnel 1991
#37 General Dynamics Electrical/Electronics Assembly 1991
#36 General Dynamics CATIA System Designers 1991
#35 General Dynamics MRP II – Manufacturing Personnel 1991
#34 General Dynamics Software Engineering 1991
#33 Hewlett Packard Information Technologists 1991
#32 AT&T Network Systems Marketing Personnel 1991
#31 Occidental Petroleum Labs Laboratory Personnel 1991
#30 NCR Supply Line Management 1990
#29 Square D Quality Training 1990
#28 General Dynamics Composites Bonding & Fabrication 1990
#27 ARCO Alaska AMPS 1990
#26 Hewlett Packard Information Technologists 1989
#25 General Dynamics Quality 1989
#24 Ameritech Network Services Management 1989
#23 Ameritech Distribution Services Second-level 1989
#22 AT&T Network Systems Network Systems Sales 1989
#21 Northern Trust Bank (Chicago) Trust and Financial Services 1988
#20 AT&T Microelectronics Product Management 1988
#19 AT&T Network Systems Switching Business Unit Sales 1988
#18 Dow Chemical Safety Training 1987
#17 NASA Middle Manager 1987

#16 AT&T Network Systems Product Manager 1986
#15 Illinois Bell Second-level Manager 1986
#14 Illinois Bell Data Technician 1986
#13 Multigraphics In-Branch Sales Orientation 1986
#12 Dow Chemical Secretarial/Administrative 1986
#11 Dow Chemical Top Operator 1986
#10 MCC Powers Fire and Security 1985
#9 Alcoa Labs Scientists, Engineers, Technicians, 1984
and Administrative#8 AT&T AETM 1984
#7 AT&T Switching Technician 1984
#6 Burroughs Information Specialists 1984
#5 Westinghouse Defense Electronics Technical Operators (WICAM/IAG) 1983
#4 Channel Gas Industries/Tenneco Fixed-rate Personnel 1983
#3 MCC Powers ATC Branch Personnel 1983
#2 Motorola Design and Manufacturing Engineering 1982
#1 Exxon Exploration USA Geologists/Geophysicists 1982

For more about CAD and the other PACT Processes for T&D/ Learning/ Knowledge Management, see my book…lean-ISD which is available as a free, 404-page PDF on my web site at: