Final Friday of the Month: Part 2 – Assessing Your T&D/ Learning/ Knowledge Systems

In this month’s Final Friday Feature we will address…

1 O’clock: T&D Strategic Planning System

  1. Enterprise Strategic Plans Surveillance Process
  2. T&D Strategic Planning Process

This 12-part Blog series addresses the systems and processes of an organizational entity addressing T&D/ Learning/ Knowledge Management. Original source is my 2001 book:

2001 TDSV Book Cover

Free Book PDF

For more on this model please see the free 400+ page book: T&D Systems View at www.eppic.biz – which is intended as both an analytic and design tool – here.

The T&D/ L&D Clockface Model

We are “rockin’ round the clock” starting from the 12 O’Clock portion of the model – the most important sub-system in the system you have in place for T&D/ Learning/ Knowledge Management.

Your models may vary.

The 12 clockface positions of the T&D Systems View model each represent a subset of the total system’s Processes of T&D.

They are organized into three groupings.

– T&D Leadership Systems and Processes

– T&D Core Systems and Processes

– T&D Support Systems and Processes

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1 O’clock: T&D Strategic Planning System

  1. Enterprise Strategic Plans Surveillance Process
  2. T&D Strategic Planning Process

– T&D Strategic Planning System – This system’s processes organize all of the strategic planning for T&D to ensure that T&D’s plans and efforts are consistent with the strategic plans of the critical elements of the enterprise.

1.1- Enterprise Strategic Plans Surveillance Process Outputs and Their “Utilities”

The key outputs from the Enterprise Strategic Plans Surveillance Process include the following:

Key Outputs Key Utilities
List of strategic issues and list
of relevant T&D needs and the ROI, cost of conformance, and cost of nonconformance for each, by enterprise planning unit/entity
This focuses both the T&D organization staff and the T&D Governance and Advisory System members on those strategic issues (problems and opportunities) critical to the overall enterprise.

Is It Broken? Clues and Cues

Your Enterprise Strategic Plans Surveillance Process may be broken if

– You have no clue about the high-payback strategies of the key T&D customer segments of your enterprise.

– Your T&D resources that help you meet the strategic needs of your customers are not seen as strategic themselves.

 

1.2- T&D Strategic Planning Process Outputs and Their “Utilities”

The T&D Strategic Planning Process interfaces with many of the other T&D systems’ processes. It gets its primary inputs from the Enterprise Strategic Plans Surveillance Process. It provides its outputs primarily to the T&D Governance and Advisory System. The key outputs from the T&D Strategic Planning Process include the following:

Key Outputs Key Utilities
T&D strategic plan Provides a visible link between the T&D strategies and drivers of them (the strategic plans of T&D’s key customers) and provides input to T&D resource plans to keep them aligned with the needs of their customers.

 

Is It Broken? Clues and Cues

Your T&D Strategic Planning Process may be broken if

– You have no strategic plan for T&D.

– Your T&D strategies of where you are going and why are not documented.

– Your T&D strategies have not been reviewed and/or approved by the enterprise leadership as in alignment with the needs of the enterprise.

– Enterprise executives don’t know the strategic value of the T&D organization’s contributions from the past, the present, or the future.

– Your T&D team is not aware of and cannot summarize the strategic direction of the T&D organization itself.

Free Book PDF

For more on this model please see the free 400+ page book: T&D Systems View at www.eppic.biz – which is intended as both an analytic and design tool – here.

Guy W. Wallace

Guy W. Wallace, has been an external ISD/HPT consultant since 1982, is the president of EPPIC Inc., and is a past president of ISPI – the International Society for Performance Improvement.

He is the author of the book:  lean-ISD, a recipient of an ISPI 2002 Award of Excellence. He has also authored/co-authored 13 other books.

He may be reached via, and related resources may be obtained, at his web site: www.eppic.biz

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TBT Short Video: Jeanne Farrington – HPT Practitioner 2012

Shot at the ISPI Conference in 2012.

Just over 7 minutes

The 2 Video Podcast Series on HPT

HPT – Human Performance Technology – the application of science (technology) to improve performance of the individual, the team, and the organization levels.

The HPT Practitioner Video Podcast Series are short videos of HPT Practitioners – speaking to a script.

The HPT Legacy Video Podcast Series are longer videos, in an interview format, loosely following a script and following tangents at times.

Over 55 videos in these two collections.

See the entire series of HPT Practitioner and HPT Legacy Series Videos – here.

For information about ISPI – the International Society for Performance Improvement – please go here.

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TBT Short Video: the late Geary A. Rummler – HPT Practitioner 2008

Shot at the ISPI Conference in 2008.

Just over 5 minutes

The 2 Video Podcast Series on HPT

HPT – Human Performance Technology – the application of science (technology) to improve performance of the individual, the team, and the organization levels.

The HPT Practitioner Video Podcast Series are short videos of HPT Practitioners – speaking to a script.

The HPT Legacy Video Podcast Series are longer videos, in an interview format, loosely following a script and following tangents at times.

Over 55 videos in these two collections.

See the entire series of HPT Practitioner and HPT Legacy Series Videos – here.

For information about ISPI – the International Society for Performance Improvement – please go here.

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Stakeholders Beyond the Customers

The Customer Is King (Not)  

It’s been decades since I saw a poster on the wall at a client site reading exactly or intending to convey that “The Customer is King.”

But I have heard this sentiment spoken or inferred in things I’ve read recently.

A quick test: Are we willing to meet the customer’s requirements at any cost? Even if that requires us to break the law?

The answer is “No!” – and it is no because nothing in business (or anywhere else) is really that simple. The truth is that there are a very complex set of Stakeholders beyond the Customers for any Supplier – be they internal and/or external Suppliers. And another truth is that often the requirements of the various stakeholders are in conflict with each other.

What’s an empowered team of people to do as they confront these realities? Deciding who wins and who loses is a game that few like to play.

Who Are These Stakeholders?

My starter model of Stakeholders will require adaptation for each use. Note that there are many potentially different sub-categories for each and many specific types of organizations and/or people in each of them. The categories are, in alphabetical order:

  • Board of Directors
  • Community
  • Customers
  • Employees
  • Executive Management
  • Government
  • Management
  • Shareholders/Owners
  • Society
  • Suppliers

Would you agree that each of these Stakeholder categories are stakeholders and that they each have requirements (needs) and wishes (wants)? And that those needs and wants could be in conflict?

How do we then balance the conflicting requirements and determine where tradeoffs can and should be made? How do we evaluate them to determine how to create a win-win solution for everyone? How do we conclude whether a win-win for everyone is actually feasible and not just a “pie in the sky” aspiration caught in the real world of variability?

The first thing to do – in my view – is to view them as a hierarchy.

Here is one example in graphic form. Note, your situation might vary – and you will need to adapt rather than adopt this hierarchy.

Stakeholder Hierachy Example 3

What Do These Stakeholders Require?

Society

Borrowing from the work of Roger Kaufman…as presented in Wikipedia…

There will be no losses of life nor elimination or reduction of levels of well-being, survival, self-sufficiency, and quality of life from any source, including:

  • War and/or riot and/or terrorism
  • Unintended human-caused changes to the environment including permanent destruction of the environment and/or rendering it nonrenewable
  • Murder, rape, or crimes of violence, robbery, or destruction to property
  • Substance abuse
  • Disease
  • Pollution
  • Starvation and/or malnutrition
  • Destructive behavior, including child, partner, spouse, self, elder, and others
  • Discrimination based on irrelevant variable including color, race, age, creed, gender, religion, wealth, national origin, or location

Government

They require compliance with laws and regulations. For more specific insights, talk to your executives, the law department, standards groups, and your labor relations organization.

Shareholders/Owners

They typically require growth in the value of their shareholder equity. For more insight, talk to your board of directors, public relations, and your finance organization.

Boards of Directors

They require progress toward long-term business goals and strategies and short-term business goals and strategies. For more insight, talk to your CEO and functional/unit executives.

Executive Management

They require much the same as the Board of Directors.

Stakeholder Hierachy Example 2

Management

They require much the same as the Board of Directors.  For more insight, talk to your CEO and functional/unit executives.

Customers

They require products or services meeting their requirements at a cost/value ratio that beats your competition. For more insight, conduct a customer survey and talk to your marketing/sales/service personnel who work closely with customers.

Employees

They require job security, competitive wages and benefits, a safe work environment, and opportunities for personal challenge and growth. For more insight, talk with your labor relations personnel and all levels of employees. Survey attitudes and concerns by holding formal and informal discussions with your employees or conducting employee attitude surveys. Use suggestion programs.

Suppliers

They require continuity of business, an accurately forecasted demand for their products/services, profitability. For more insight, talk to your suppliers and your materials/purchasing organization personnel.

Community

See the Society requirements, but note that there may be specific local community requirements as well.

And Other

Note: you might also have other Stakeholders, such as standards bodies and unions.

Stakeholder Hierachy Example 1

Recognizing and Balancing Conflicting Stakeholder Requirements

Given the extent of your potential stakeholders and their requirements there are really three challenges.

  1. Identifying specifically who the primary stakeholders are for any given situation.
  1. Understanding their specific requirements and priorities.
  1. Balancing those requirements that are in conflict.

The multitude of requirements can be simplified and communicated visually, using a matrix format showing the key requirements of each of the primary categories of stakeholder.

An Example Stakeholder Requirements Matrix

To construct your own matrix use a spreadsheet program which will make it easier to add/delete columns. See this next example.

Stakeholder Requirements Matrix Example 2002

To complete the matrix:

  1. Identify the stakeholders and their requirements.
  2. The numbers along the horizontal line correspond to those listed vertically. Add additional columns as required to correspond to the number of requirements listed vertically.
  3. Compare each requirement along the left edge to the numbered requirement along the top. Rate those requirements with a high level of conflict at 3, those with a medium level of conflict at 2, and with low conflict at 1. Requirements that do not conflict can be left blank.

Stakeholder Summary

We must understand all of the stakeholders involved and put customer requirements in the proper perspective. And we need to get this message across to our employees.

Good luck. And may the balance of requirements be in your favor.

Note: This post was adapted from my 1995 article:

The Customer Is King – Not! – 15 page PDF – the original version of the article published in the Journal for Quality and Participation in March 1995 – address Balancing Conflicting Stakeholder Requirements, and suggests that the Customer is Not the King of Stakeholders (despite the unfortunate slogans from the Quality movement despite Deming’s admonitions about slogans).

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Monday Morning Quarter PACT #41

Take a Quarter Hour or Less

To develop your ability to adopt and adapt the PACT Processes for ISD – to meet your Requirements and Constraints.

For Performance Improvement and positive ROI when properly targeted.

Slide1

The PACT Video Shorts Series Index and Links

Series Index Page

A- PACT Overviews

B- PACT Analysis

C- CAD – Curriculum Architecture Design

D- MCD – Modular Curriculum Development

E- IAD – Instructional Activity Development

F- Project Planning & Management

G- Group Process Facilitation Tips

H- EPPI – Performance Improvement

*** *** *** ***

This week’s video…

F8- Design Teams 

Video Short F8- Design Teams

Reminder – this is just one video of a collection of over 55 free “School of PACT” videos, that in combination with free books, articles, presentations and for fee books intends to enable the practice of performance-based Instructional Systems Design. To improve Performance Competence at the worker level, the work level, and the workplace level. For Individual, Process and Organizational performance improvement.

You may view them in sequence – or bounce around to eventually do just some or all of them.

See the Resource Tab or The Pursuing Performance Blog and the EPPIC Web Site for additional free resources – here.

See the entire School of PACT video collection Index – here.

What is PACT?

PACT is performance-based ISD… at 3 levels… with common analysis and project management approaches, tools and techniques… to speed the ISD process… to be effective while being efficient…

PACT Logo w 5 Methodologies 2

Other PACT Resources

See all of the EPPIC Videos on YouTube – here.

Books for free – here.

Books for sale – here.

Slide3

This MMQP Series

This Blog series will post each Monday at 8 am east coast time (USA).

Gopher-perched-transparent

Go for it – here – Monday Mornings!

Why PACT?

The benefits?

Slide40

PACT is Proven

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My Two Key Analytic Tools in ISD and PI to the Ends of Performance

Two Key Analytic Tools

At the root of both PACT and EPPI – my methodology sets for ISD and PI – Instructional Systems Design and Performance Improvement – are two data gathering tools and reports: the Performance Model and the Enabling Matrices.

PM-KS used in design

This post is really about how these two data-sets can impact the enterprise systems and processes that deal with people and the non-people “enablers” of Performance.

The Performance Model documents two things: ideal, mastery human performance, and a gap analysis of the current state(s) against that ideal.

TMC SM Perf Model Chart

The gap analysis identifies where the process’ outputs are not meeting the metrics, and then identifies the probable causes (as input to additional root cause analysis purposes later as needed) and cause type.

Most of the time the “probable cause” is attributed to something other than the performers knowledge/skills.

I’ve spent over 30 years now helping clients see where training won’t do anything but consume resources for a negative ROI, and where it can have a positive ROI.

The Performance Model and its data have been central to my approach for getting that insight in front of them.

Enablers 

The Enabler Matrices for “Awareness/ Knowledge/ Skill” then documents those enabling human knowledge, skills, attributes and values required for mastery performance, and links them back to that performance.

This is sometimes captured in addition to the other enablers of EPPI … that include a well designed Process(es) … that can meet the Stakeholder Requirements for Products and Process.

Slide5

Here is an example chart for the Enabler Category of: Company Policies/Procedures – one of 17 Knowledge/Skill Categories in the PACT and EPPI methodology-sets.

K-S Matrices w Call Outs

Human Asset Requirements

There are 5 major categories of Human Asset Requirements that the Enabler Matrices capture:

  1. Awareness/ Knowledge/ Skill requirements
  2. Physical requirements
  3. Intellectual requirements
  4. Psychological requirements
  5. Personal Value requirements

This 2-part approach has been looking at “competencies” at two levels since 1982, before Competencies became a big thing: performance competence and enabler competence.

Performance competence is what you want.

Enabler competence is just a necessary means to that end.

Too many efforts focus on the latter IMO.

Unfortunately, research has shown that “transfer” of generic learning to specific situations is problematic. Therefore a waste of resources.

Master Performers and Other Subject Matter Experts 

Both the Performance Models and Enabler Matrices should be produced using the insights and experience of Master Performers and other Subject Matter Experts. Just as one pulls together the right people to map a process, the Performance Model is as good as its sources. I typically facilitate groups of 8-12 Master Performers in a 3-4 day Analysis Team meeting. Of course the length of the meeting depends on the scope, complexity, newness and controversy level of the targeted performance to be captured.

And if a Process Map already exists, we typically follow that structure to inform our Performance Model’s structure, so as not to create two views of one process performance. The Performance Model allows one to look more closely at the human role in the processes, and serves to inform additional data gathering efforts, such as the enabling knowledge/skills, but also other non-human, environmental enablers.

PACT is Facilitated

Why produce them? To provide input to the enterprise functions, systems and processes that deal with the human variable, AND to the enterprise functions, systems and processes that deal with the non-human variables in the targeted processes. Those are the HAMS and EAMS of the EPPI methodology-set.

The Enterprise Enabling Systems

The HAMS and EAMS of the EPPI are the support functions of the enterprise. They are not configured per the next model – you would use this model – or some adaptation – to determine who owns the responsibilities for the processes and outputs that are inputs downstream.

The EPPI HAMS and EAMS Model

They are non-core; but critical to the core operations and core processes.

They provision and maintain all of the “enabling stuff” that brings a paper process design to reality. Some, not all, but perhaps many missing or inadequate enabler pieces may prove the process design robustness inadequate. Then either the process is redesigned to fit the human and environmental assets available, or those need to be changed. Or both.

Human Asset Management Systems 

HAMS – Human Asset Management Systems are those enterprise systems and processes that attend to provisioning the right people with the right competencies and the right time and right place, regarding the peoples’

  • Awareness, knowledge, skills
  • Physical attributes
  • Psychological attributes
  • Intellectual attributes
  • Values

The various processes where the performers work across a complex enterprise require specific versus generic approaches when it comes to putting the right people with the right stuff in the right place at the right time and growing them as continuous change might require. And not treat all jobs as if they have the same risk/reward potential. They don’t.

Slide9

One cannot forget about the other side of the equation – when tackling the human element. Take into account the non-human elements…

Environmental Asset Management Systems 

EAMS – Environmental Asset Management Systems are those enterprise systems and processes that attend to provisioning the right environmental supports at the right time and right place, regarding the environmental support item assets of the following types

  • Information/data
  • Tools/equipment
  • Materials/supplies
  • Facilities/grounds
  • Budget/headcount
  • Culture/Consequences (+/-)

These enterprise systems and processes providing the process with “all things non-human.”

Slide8

Both the HAMS and EAMS must operate their systems to provision the proper assets to the processes of the enterprise in a balance that ensures peak performance. And in most cases there is more than one way to achieve the balance. And of course the right balance or mix of assets changes over time due to changes in the process.

So my update to the Ishikawa diagram, with some Geary Rummler and other HPT expert influences, and one that I use to frame my narrow or wide analysis efforts, is shown next…

Slide5

This is just one part of the overall analysis data framework. It’s intended to be scaleable from a single job up to a department, a function, a business unit, and to the enterprise. This model is usually applied in projects focused on the total job of a performer or group of performers, or on a process with several to many jobs performing process roles.

Having the performance and enabling data organized in this fashion, I can more clearly see and communicate the human variable and its interface with “all things non-human” in pursuit of process improvement for ROI. If one doesn’t quickly see more clearly the host of variables that have high probability for required “improvements” to support an initiative, the ROI calculation will miss these real costs.

That impacts the improvement decision making process negatively.

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