Aiding Informal Learning : An Alaskan Example from 1994

Updated 11/21/2014.

Alaska 1994

I came across this job aid in 1994 on break from our project to create a couple thousand Performance Tests for a Qualification/Certification system for 20-some technician groups on the Alyeska Pipeline. I use to have a poster like the one in the photo on the wall of my offices – but that was a long time ago.

TBT.

We did 2 large projects in Alaska at SWI – Svenson & Wallace Inc. – the first in 1987 and the second in 1994 – at Prudhoe Bay, and then on the pipeline itself.

Each developed over 2000 Performance Tests for approximately 20 job audiences – all tied to a Pay Progression Program – so it had everybody’s attention. So getting them to the collaboration table was easy – so to speak.  But getting over their distrust (we were the third attempt in 1987) of those impacted and those administrating the final “system” was tricky.

But – using our standard Group Process and adapting our CAD – Curriculum Architecture Design methods and tools – we were so successful in 1987 – that our client’s neighbors – running the pipeline from Prudhoe Bay at the top of the North Slope in the Arctic Circle – to Valdez just east of Anchorage if you don’t count the landscape in the way – they wanted one too. And so in 1994 we took that effort on.

Alaska Map

The modified CAD approach was used to scope out all of the Performance Tests – driven by Performance Models and Enabler Matrices – that led to an MCD-like (ADDIE-like) approach to quick development of the 2000+ Performance Tests in collaboration with designated Master Performers.

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The client thought that after the modified approach – they would “apply” the tests – and then use the failure data to determine where to invest in a modular curriculum (20 Paths worth of content to develop – much of it sharable).

But since the tests led to pay increases – it had everyone’s attention – being tied to their wallets.

Everyone did what was necessary to master the Performance – much of it quite complex – and most passed the tests using only Informal, Learner-centered, Performance-driven (as the Tests were shared – and open book) learning. No formal training. Only their experience, and their network of co-workers, and the manufactures’ documents.

So – no follow-on CAD work for Guy. Which is OK, because the point has never been Instruction/ Training/ Learning/ Knowledge Management. It’s always been about the Performance.

IMO.

Sharing

Here below is a book that my partner, Ray Svenson, and I later wrote about the approach and systems/ processes structure we used – besides just creating the Performance Tests. See the nine sub-systems in the cover below.

Available as a free PDF or as a paperback for $20.

Performance-based Employee Qualification/ Certification Systems (2007) – as a Paperback

Paperback $20

Note: this 2007 book is also available as a FREE 226 page PDF - here.

But – what’s the cost of your printing and binding? 

The Arctic Circle in the Winter

Video of Prudhoe Bay facilities in 1987…

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ASQ Asks About Quality Leaders and Leadership Training

This month, ASQ CEO, Bill Troy asks his assembled group of bloggers, the ASQ Influential Voices group, 2 questions in this latest post. Here is his post:

Here at ASQ we’ve introduced a powerful idea that I think can and should help shape our future.

The idea is this: Every quality professional, a leader.

Like a lot of fundamentally important concepts, this sounds simple and straightforward but needs to be thought out a bit.  In short, we want, need, and expect every one of our members—and indeed,  every person in the quality community—to grow and develop as leaders.

We at ASQ understand and endorse this idea and accept the implicit responsibility to help our members do just that.  You may hear much about leadership, but some—or even many—quality professionals don’t get opportunities to participate in leadership training. For a lot of ASQ members, I am convinced that whatever we provide may be the only leadership training they get.

So what is this connection between leadership and quality, and why is it so important?  Simply put, the quality professional, wherever he or she may be and at whatever level of management, must be a leader to be effective.  The quality professional at work somewhere in the quality field is not an artist alone at the canvas. That professional is bringing insight, tools, principles, and personal example to someone—to some crew, team, or section; to a business unit; or to something even bigger, such as a hospital, a federal agency, or a school system.

This task is going to be bigger than the sole person, perhaps much bigger.  It will involve other people, with all of their complexities, strengths, weaknesses, hopes, and fears.  So whatever our quality professional is working on, it is going to take leadership to get the job done.

Some have made the case recently that quality professionals lack the business skills needed to connect with the C-suite. Others note that quality professionals sometimes lack the “soft skills” needed to make the case for quality outside the quality department. Leadership encompasses all of the above. Business savvy, people skills, and decisive action all are required to get results in the world.

Now I want to hear from you. Do you think you are a quality leader? What kind of leadership training did you receive and was it enough?

So Bill’s 2 questions are:

  • Do you think you are a quality leader?
  • What kind of leadership training did you receive and was it enough?

I Am Tempted To Ask Why 5 Times

But seriously: What is meant by the word Leader?

For there are many types of Leader – IMO. Here is my made-up-in-the-moment two axis elements for a 2 x 2 matrix:

Action Leader, such as a Sargent leading his troops into battle, or a Marketing staff member leading the New Product Development Team of cross-functional representatives on the assigned task in the overall NPD plan? Real time baby.

Thought Leader, such as those who influence the philosophies and practices of others through their shared thoughts on concepts, models, methods, tools and techniques. Reflective time baby.

I think the Quality effort needs both. IMO.

And just as the gods did not create all men and women to swing from both sides of the plate equally (a baseball metaphor), not all men and women need to be “lefties at the plate” too when that is needed. That’s why the team has various types of diversity. Including the loud – and the quiet – types of action and thought Leaders – and Members.

But First: Why Must Everyone Become a Leader?

Must they?

I’ve been dealing with things like this since the early 1980s when management wanted to “train” their people to be Team Members. Everyone a Team Member. Everyone on a Team. Acting like Team Members. Acting all alike … as if that would solve anything.

But…

What if they don’t want to?

What if they just want to do their job and go home without the imagined and real burdens of being a Team Member or of being a Leader? What if the rewards don’t balance out with the costs – to personal time and/or family life or whatever?

What if they are incapable?

What if the uphill climb represents so much pain without enough gain – pain AND gain being in the eyes of the beholder – that THEY DON’T SEE ENOUGH R for their I?

What then?

Engage them more???

I say: leave people alone, yet inspire them to aspire, enable them to accomplish, and then recognize and reward them as they each would wish.

But don’t coerce them. Ever.

And if someday they change their aspirations ….

An Aside: A Simple Model for Instruction – Training – Learning – Development

Slide1

 

Back to the 2 questions.

Do you think you are a quality leader?

Yes – and no.

I’m an Action Leader on most of my consultant engagements, as I plan and lead teams to execute the plan (and adjust as needed). My professional role is different than most, being an external consultant since 1982. I’ve had that role on hundreds of engagements over 32 years.

I’m a Thought Leader in that I publish (using both old school and new school means) and … people read, review and respond. And I’m hired to bring in new thoughts and new ways of approaching “Training” to impact Performance – which often means not doing Training alone, but doing something-else, or several something-elses … and then Training maybe only using Job Aids. Or…

Process re-Design anyone?

What kind of leadership training did you receive and was it enough?

No Formal Training for me – other than the Training I have Designed and Developed for clients. So mostly it’s been via Informal Means – reading others’ thoughts, listening to others … watching others and then reflecting on that in both the near and far term.

Was it enough?

Hmm. That’s really for others to assess.

But the standard answer – “never enough” – needs to be balanced with specifying “what kind of training” are we talking about here?

  • Classroom?
  • Coached On-the-Job (OJT)?
  • E-Learning?

Each can have a role in the development – the training – effort.

But any one means alone is not ever enough – no matter how much.

Never.

Let’s Help Both People and Their Enterprises Succeed

But let’s not force everyone into a role that they would not prefer.

Let’s “enable” – and “encourage” – but not “expect” in a too demanding manner.

Respectfully.

Yeah, that’s the ticket.

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Monday Morning Quarter PACT #27

Take a Quarter Hour or Less

To develop your ability to adopt and adapt the PACT Processes for ISD – to meet your Requirements and Constraints.

For Performance Improvement and positive ROI when properly targeted.

Slide1

D6- MCD - Focus: Activity Spec

Video Short D6- MCD – Focus: Activity Spec

Reminder – this is just one video of a collection of over 55 free “School of PACT” videos, that in combination with free books, articles, presentations and for fee books intends to enable the practice of performance-based Instructional Systems Design. To improve Performance Competence at the worker level, the work level, and the workplace level. For Individual, Process and Organizational performance improvement.

You may view them in sequence – or bounce around to eventually do just some or all of them.

See the Resource Tab or The Pursuing Performance Blog and the EPPIC Web Site for additional free resources – here.

See the entire School of PACT video collection Index – here.

What is PACT?

PACT is performance-based ISD… at 3 levels… with common analysis and project management approaches, tools and techniques… to speed the ISD process… to be effective while being efficient…

PACT Logo w 5 Methodologies 2

Other PACT Resources

See all of the EPPIC Videos on YouTube – here.

Books for free – here.

Books for sale – here.

Slide3

This MMQP Series

This Blog series will post each Monday at 8 am east coast time (USA).

Gopher-perched-transparent

Go for it – here – Monday Mornings!

Why PACT?

The benefits?

Slide40

Proven

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Part 13 of 12 – My 12 Boxes for Leveraging Enterprise Process Performance Improvement

Review & Reflection

This is part 13 of 12.

Reflect Back to The Big Picture of EPPI’s Performance Enablers

Here are the 12 Boxes of the EPPI approach … in non-Box form …

…start on the left with the Process itself… and then on to the enablers… of Process Performance…

EPPI Fishbone v2012 - 1- The Process

Frames … Boxes … Buckets … Accomplishments … Areas of Performance … Key Results Areas … Major Duties … Responsibilities …. whatever ….

Is there a Process? Is it adhered to? If not, why not?

Are any of the Enablers of the Process inadequate in terms of quantity, quality, cost or timeliness?

Process? Enablers?

A Systems View

It’s complex. It’s a System.

Within a System of course….

And that too is within a System.

Individual Enablers May Or May Not Be Key

The appropriate items in any category of Enabler – are just one set of enablers – of many – that are required to support or enable a Process or set of Processes.

And it’s important to understand the difference between all of the enabler data and which of it is key data – that are the key that really enable and impact Performance Competence.

And what’s really critical versus necessary versus superfluous.

And what is your definition of Performance Competence – or the end goal – and then … how do you measure that?

My defintion…

Slide6

How you measure that is unique to each situation – except for the bottom line, accepted financial metrics related to Return on Equity (ROE), and/or return on net assets (RONA), etc., etc. Business measures.

The bigger picture…

Rocking Review Around the EPPI 12 Box Model Clockwise

Besides “The Process” itself – there are the 2 types of Enablers.

EPPI Fishbone v2012 - 1- The Process

12 items, boxes, frames, Major Duties, areas, etc., etc.

In my view – in my analysis efforts – I would always start with the Process.

Is there a Process – and is it adequate to the demands of all of the Stakeholders – including but beyond THE CUSTOMER(s). And their Customers and other stakeholders.

Here is my model for Stakeholders – for you to adopt or adapt as needed…

Stakeholder Hierachy Example 1

The enablers are either adequate or inadequate in the context of the needs/requirements of the Process. So start there.

What is the Process and what are its Requirements – what enables it?

And are those enablers adequate?

In Rocket Science it would be the following for the EPPI Data & Information category/box:

  • the Rocket Ship also needs a flight plan, instrument data, technical,blueprints, wiring diagrams, computer systems instructions, etc., etc.

Are those Enablers adequate?

The Enablers

Start with the Process itself and it’s Gaps – and then, as needed, look to the Process Enablers – and any Gaps there.

The Enablers are again of two types:

  1. Human
  2. Environmental

And…

The Process View and the Enabler Views I propose here are intended to be used in a scalable manner, for looking at what is necessary at the following levels of Enterprise Performance …

  1. Worker - a.k.a: Individual, and/or the…
  2. Work - a.k.a: Process, and/or the…
  3. Workplace - a.k.a: Organization-Enterprise, and/or the…
  4. World - a.k.a: Mega-Social Responsibility

Human Assets and Human Asset Management Systems

The Human Assets are:

  • Awareness, knowledge, skills
  • Physical attributes
  • Psychological attributes
  • Intellectual attributes
  • Values

Awareness, knowledge, and skills - come in many types and varieties. Further complicating the performance context/ situation, one performer might need to be only aware of what other performers need to know much more about, while yet another group of performers may need to have an actual skill level.

Physical attributes - include “items” such as the five senses: sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell; as well as height, weight, strength, endurance, etc.

Psychological attributes - include “items” such as positive attitude, aggressiveness, risk taking, cautiousness, detail orientation, big picture orientation, etc. Many Models exist.

Intellectual attributes - can include “items” such as conceptual thinking, concrete thinking, strategic thinking, process thinking, etc.

Values - can include such “items” as customer satisfaction orientation, teamwork, diversity, fairness, honesty, work ethic, family, etc.

The HAMS - the Human Asset Management Systems “provision” these to the Processes as needed – adequately, or not.

The HAMS are covered after this next section.

Environmental Assets and Environmental Asset Management Systems

And the Environmental Assets include:

  • Information/ data
  • Tools/ equipment
  • Materials/ supplies
  • Facilities/ grounds
  • Budget/ headcount
  • Consequences (+/ –)

Data & Information - includes all of the work orders and instructions, the policies/procedures, and all data/information needed to enable job holders to perform.

Materials & Supplies - provide all of the materials and supplies needed to enable job performance.

Tools & Equipment - provide the tools, equipment, machinery, and vehicles needed to enable performers to perform at a level of mastery.

Facilities & Grounds - provide the buildings, grounds, facilities and utilities for communications/power/water/and so on, as needed to enable performance.

Financial Systems - provide the capital and expense budgets, and the headcount budgets to management, needed to enable and support job holders in performing.

Culture & Consequences - provide and reinforce the enterprise cultural norms, and all of the management reinforcements (and extinguishments) needed to encourage (or discourage) performance.

The EAMS - the Environmental Asset Management Systems “provision” these to the Processes as needed – adequately, or not.

The EAMS and the HAMS are covered in this next section.

And Then What? What About the Enabler Provisioning Systems?

And then after determining which of the Enablers are in need of attention – I use the following model to determine how “these things” happen – and where and who – in my client organization.

Here are the Provisioning Systems mentioned earlier – the HAMS and the EAMS …

I use this next model as a tool/template to determine who actual “owns” or “co-owns” or “doesn’t own but should” – the roles and responsibilities for Provisioning the right “stuff” to the right processes at the right time, cost and quality …

The EPPI HAMS and EAMS Model

“Stuff” being the HA – Human Assets and the EA Environmental Assets REQUIRED. By the Processes.

Nothing more. Nothing less.

Lean.

These Enabler Provisioning Systems – which don’t look like this as structured in the graphic below – but perhaps this frame might help you determine who the Provisioners of Enabling Assets – may be at the root of any Gaps in the key Value Stream Processes or in the Enabling Processes.

Next one would estimate the Costs of Non-Compliance to see if it’s a Big Enough Deal – and as appropriate – the Costs of Compliance – and then one can make a wise or foolish Business Decision – from an ROI viewpoint.

Should the gaps in the enablers be addressed?

Where does this – or these kind of things – happen in the Enterprise? What’s the Enterprise Model for EAMS and HAMS? Who “owns” the responsibility for this/these?

Is it centralized, or distributed, or some mix (appropriate or not)? Is it in “enough control” with tolerable variability – or does some or all of it need to be “tightened up?”

Next Month

Next Month you can take a break from all this EPPI stuff.

Or you can read my book:

Slide21

Or you can read the entire 6-Pack:

Slide4

For more info on the books above – see the Resource tab or go to Amazon – here.

The Big Picture of EPPI – for Performance Improvement 

Slide27

It’s not about Learning – even in a Learning Organization. It’s about Performance.

Focus on Performance – and Enable That.

# # #

Monday Morning Quarter PACT #26

Take a Quarter Hour or Less

To develop your ability to adopt and adapt the PACT Processes for ISD – to meet your Requirements and Constraints.

For Performance Improvement and positive ROI when properly targeted.

Slide1

D5- MCD – Learning Objectives

Video Short D5- MCD – Learning Objectives

Reminder – this is just one video of a collection of over 55 free “School of PACT” videos, that in combination with free books, articles, presentations and for fee books intends to enable the practice of performance-based Instructional Systems Design. To improve Performance Competence at the worker level, the work level, and the workplace level. For Individual, Process and Organizational performance improvement.

You may view them in sequence – or bounce around to eventually do just some or all of them.

See the Resource Tab or The Pursuing Performance Blog and the EPPIC Web Site for additional free resources – here.

See the entire School of PACT video collection Index – here.

What is PACT?

PACT is performance-based ISD… at 3 levels… with common analysis and project management approaches, tools and techniques… to speed the ISD process… to be effective while being efficient…

PACT Logo w 5 Methodologies 2

Other PACT Resources

See all of the EPPIC Videos on YouTube – here.

Books for free – here.

Books for sale – here.

Slide3

This MMQP Series

This Blog series will post each Monday at 8 am east coast time (USA).

Gopher-perched-transparent

Go for it – here – Monday Mornings!

Why PACT?

The benefits?

Slide40

Proven

# # #

What Will You Find on a T&D/ Learning Path?

And How Would You Get There?

First – what would you find on that T&D Path – or that Learning Path if you prefer?

Whats On a TandD Path - from 1999

A Path and a Planning Guide. Above are 4 examples of Paths – from real projects.

But wait, there’s more.

And What Else Will You Produce – That Might Be of Value?

What else is produced and how might it be used?

Check out the next graphic.

Slide16

The Performance Model – and the matrices of systematically derived enablers (such as awareness, knowledge and skills) can feed a Learning/Training Content Development system’s ADDIE/SAT/SAM design approach, methods. In PACT it feeds instructional design – which feeds Development, etc.

… an aside …

But it also feed other Human Asset Management systems – and Environmental Asset Management systems – which in my EPPI models/methods are portrayed in this next graphic…

The EPPI HAMS and EAMS Model

The Training & Development Systems – Learning Systems if you prefer – include Path design, Content development, Planning Tools/systems development, Deployment systems development/ administration/ maintenance, etc., etc.

And etc.

Note: my approach to learning/Training is “it’s all about the Performance” – on-the-job – that guides all of the inevitable trade-offs made deliberately or inadvertently – of any ISD-like process. Just as I would approach the Design/Development of any other Solution-set, including a Training/Learning component or not.

That’s where the Performance data and the Enabler data might be of value.

And of even greater value for bringing all of those systems/processes/outputs and efforts – in sync with each other – in sync with the Performance Requirements of the Processes of their Enterprise – and not some generic construct with inevitable Transfer issues that will then negatively impact Results/ROI.

So How Does One Go About Doing This?

Systematically one would hope. And with a proven process/approach.

Here’s mine…

 

Slide15

I’ve done 75 of these myself, to date. Almost always where the Risks and/or Rewards of the Performance Situation/Context dictated not risking those Risks and/or Rewards by leaving the situation to the current state, mostly Informal Learning (once you see what their is to be learned) with a few Formal (but typically NOT AUTHENTIC) Learning components.

More Detail on How? Read on, read on …

CAD – Phase 1: Project Planning & Kick-Off

It’s more needed than to “just do it.” Much more. If it is to be done right. What are the consequences for getting something like this “not right enough?” That a Business Assessment – not an Instructional Design decision.

Which is why I use a Project Steering Team – to make those Business Decisions. And to sanction the Instructional Design Decisions – making them Recommendations – which is as it should be IMO.

Slide25

Note that these slides are from a past project, albeit conducted a decade ago in 2004.

On to Analysis, but not with Paralysis…

CAD – Phase 2: Analysis

Focus on the Performance Requirements of the Target Audience(s)- and enable them … starts here.

Slide26

Quick can be done with Quality.

Beware of GIGO: Garbage In – Garbage Out.

Chose all of your sources carefully. And to me that means the people who will collaborate in this effort.

On to Design – done quickly and collaboratively…

CAD – Phase 3: Design

Slide27

Design Team members should always be members of the Analysis Team.

Always.

They process the analysis data that they themselves created previously when on the Analysis Team - to create the design – the modular Path – a Path of modular Events of modular Lessons – in my approach. Which is modular – and not collections of Modules. Big Diff IMO.

On to Implementation Planning… to decide which of the Content that “could be” – “should be” resourced for buy and/or build – of what “will be” … and certainly not building out all of the Gaps – unless they all present significant R for the I – as in ROI.

CAD – Phase 4: Implementation Planning

Not everything that could be – should be.

Some should not be; and should be left to Informal Learning. Some should not.

It’s a Business Decision as to which Learning is Formal and which is left to Informal means … which can then be looked at for how well current systems and tools facilitate those Informal Learning situations.

By Design.

Yeah – there too. Not in the “what” of Informal – but in the “how” of Informal. Let the marketplace dictate the What. Let the Enterprise enable the How.

For Performance Purposes. Not Learning for the sake of Learning.

Slide28

Everything starts as Informal Learning. Right?

The decision to make it, the Informal, more Formal, is a Business Decision.

How to  make it Formal – and what media/modes to use – is an Instructional Design Decision – best influenced by the customer’s people “in-the-know” – who I classify as Master Performers and Top Managers.

So in the end – of a CAD effort anyway – the client decides what to leave Informal and what to make Formal – due to the Risks and Rewards – and then some ADDIE-like or SAM-like or MCD-like approach is used to build out the prioritized, and resourced, Gaps in the Path.

Slide16

One CAD leads to potentially many downstream efforts to build or buy or buy and customize – that make some generic content more authentic. Which is important for transfer. Which either leads to enough R for the I – or it doesn’t – but that’s a function of the targeting/prioritization done in Phase 4. Not exclusively of what follows Phase 4 … which in my case is an MCD or an IAD effort.

Here is a Blog Post about my latest CAD effort (before I spent 20 months in Toronto for a Pharma Documentation effort) where we started the CAD effort on January 9, 2012 and ended less than 20 business days later on January 30.

So, yes. Accelerated.

PACT is accelerated – by design.

Slide6

The Path

The Path is a marketing poster – IMO – that I have used since the early 1980s – to create initial awareness of the design – and interest in digging deeper into the next layers of the design – those Events on the path – and their Modules/Lessons. During Review Meetings I would put it over the coffee and refreshments.

Slide15

The Path is an “advanced organizer” for my review with the Project Steering Team – who have serious Business Decisions coming up soon – by the time we are all at the end of Phase 3.

An “advanced organizer” so that the Business Decisions they would make could be more fully informed. By the additional layers of data – from the analysis effort – in the layers of design.

So putting it over the coffee allowed each reviewer their first shot at their own sniff test, at their leisure.

So it’s important to Get ‘Er Right. To inform the Business Decisions about what gaps to resource – which could be an expensive proposition – and one the decision makers need to feel comfortable about making … and trusting the data that led to those Phase 4 Business Decisions.

Or – you are addressing the wrong Target IMO.

If it’s not that important.

So – How to Get ‘Er Right?

With sufficient details based on a sound logic.

Architecture Implies – To Me – Structure and Rules and Laws of Science

Curriculum Architecture – what some might call a Learning Architecture – should be something more than a collection of modules.

It should be a modular set of content – for use before and/or during the job tasks – as determined by the situational Context – and the Risks and Rewards (the R’s in ROI IMO).

I’ve been doing these since 1982. I’ve done 75 to date.

Slide1

 

PACT uses an Enterprise Content Architecture … think Dewey Decimal System … or categories … used to increase Content ReUse at reduced costs.

Architecture Implies Logic

The PACTLogic…

PACT Data Logic

Why Bother?

For the Returns on the Investments.

PACT 7 Business Reasons for Embracing

That’s the only valid reason. IMO.

Articles – From Back in the Day

Back 30 years ago in fact.

Slide1

Both 1984 present an approach to using Teams – Groups – an accelerating the Analysis, the Design and the Client Project Oversight in Instructional Design efforts. All of my books and most of my articles include some aspect of customer collaboration in the work that I do to help clients Improve.

For the Performance.

For the ROI.

Or … why bother?

Books For Free

As a PDF … click here.

Slide23

Other free books are offered – see the Resource Tab for many articles, audios, videos and books from Guy W. Wallace.

And of course – there’s more!

  • For a Paperback version of lean-ISD … for a fee … click here.
  • And for a Kindle version of lean-ISD … for a fee … click here.

Mo Books … For A Fee

This PACT-EPPI 6 pack was published in 2011. Available as paperbacks and Kindles. Reasonably priced.

Slide26

Click here for more info.

Contact Me For Information About My Consulting Services

guy.wallace@eppic.biz

I’ve been an external consultant since 1982 – and have served over 75 clients.

Perhaps I can serve you and your clients?

LIPT gww2013

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