L&D: Short TedEd Video on “How to Practice Effectively”

Just under 5 Minutes…

See the TedEd post – here.

Thanks to David Kelly for posting this video on LinkedIn!

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L&D: ADDIE Is Not a Design Methodology

ADDIE Is An NPD Framework

It can be used for Planning and Managing projects. It can be used well, or poorly.



Without Analysis and Design – Just Doing It – in terms of producing Performance Support or L&D products – won’t likely transfer and impact performance.


I’ve been using the following framework since the early 1980s.


Another layer of detail of my MCD framework of ISD Methods – Modular Curriculum Development/Acquisition – is portrayed below.


The next level is covered in my books – and in hundreds and hundreds of references regarding my PACT Processes methods for ISD.

Check the Reference Tab at: http://www.eppic.biz.

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L&D: 10 Steps to L&D Content Development for Performance Impact

Performance Impact – That’s What It’s All About

In my view anyway.

Here are 10 Steps adapted from my ISD methods…


These could all be accomplished in one meeting – depending. More likely in 3 meetings. Sometimes more. It depends on the nature and length of the content, the accessibility of others besides the Analysis/Design/Development Team of Master Performers. Etc.

I should all start with a sanctioned plan and designated Master Performers – whose say so – should be acceptable to all other stakeholders. To avoid ReWork due to wrong focus, missing content, etc.


Step 1-

I use a Performance Model template to capture the data – and that typically follows identifying the Areas of Performance. But in this example let’s pretend that it’s only one Output/Task Cluster we are targeting to address. One Output with multiple Measures and a handful of Tasks – each with their own Measures.

Perhaps the Performance is done solo – Lone Ranger style – or by others outside our Target Audience.


Step 2-

Once we know the tasks and output – we can derive the enabling K/S a Performer needs to have in order to perform. I use 17 categories of enabling K/Ss.


Step 3-

Once we know the enablers and the terminal performance we can create the Learning Objectives – and simply derive them from both sets of Analysis data.


Step 4-

The Performance Model of Tasks and Outputs is the source for authentic APPOs – Application Exercises.

If feasible … you can use Real Work, last week’s Real Work (already done), or a simulation of Real Work as the Exercise – which of course is also a Test.

If there are multiple opportunities to practice the final one could be the test. Beats a Written Test to test only for Knowledge most of the time.

But sometimes a written test of Knowledge is appropriate. The Master Performers will guide you/tell you what’s appropriate.


Step 5-

Sometimes, once you understand the APPO – you can determine whether or not a DEMO would help the learner prepare for the APPO. Not always necessary.


Step 6-

Once you understand the APPO and DEMO you can take all of the enabling K/S data and sort and sequence and group them into INFOs.


Step 7-

Now you can develop the Content – the INFOs and DEMOs and APPOs.

This step might require additional people beyond your Team of Master Performers. But maybe not. Maybe they can take this on.

Slide 7a

Step 8-

This step will require additional people beyond your Team of Master Performers. Maybe they’re just down the hall – and can be tapped to address this step.


Step 9-

This is usually more formal – but again, perhaps they’re just down the hall and they can be engaged to participate in this test.

It will require additional Master Performers to check the accuracy, completeness and appropriateness of the Content – AND – Target Audience members so that Learning can be measured, before and after or just after,


Step 10-

Feedback from Verbal Debriefings and/or Written Evaluations will be needed as input to this step. Then you “park” your final materials per your standard approach/procedures.


The 10 Steps

In summary … drum roll …


Part of the PACT Processes for T&D/ Learning/ Knowledge Management

Whether you are targeting some Micro Learning based on the Top-Down approach of Curriculum Architecture Design (to create Paths of modular content) or doing a worthy one-off – these 10 steps can guide you.



For more on the original methods that these 10 Steps were adapted from, see these Resources,


  • For Sale: Books – 13 books – some available as hardbound, and others as paperbacks and Kindles.

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L&D: Place Your Bets on Formal or Informal Performance Support & Learning

Here is a Mash-Up of an old graphic of mine (2004) with 10-20-70 (Flipped) Reference Model.


The Business Decision factors for Formal or Informal (Addressed & Structured or Unaddressed & Unstructured) is about Risk and/or Reward – & – the current & possible clarity of Processes & Practices.

Place your bets – informed bets.

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L&D: Is Your Partnership with Your Customers and Stakeholders Formal Enough?

Formal Enough To Insure That You Are Focused on the Critical Business Issues?

Or are you focused on the low-hanging fruit – so to speak? Or too much of the low-hanging fruit.

Which isn’t a problem of course, if you can afford it all. Most cannot.


Perhaps an Informal alignment is working just fine for you – and a more Formal alignment would be a bad idea.

But if a more Formal approach might help everyone come to grips with where the limited resources should be applied to leverage the returns – despite their parochial interests – then you need to address what is perhaps an invisible process and make it more viable and visible.


Every Enterprise won’t find the model that works best for them portrayed in the next graphic. But it may be a starting point in how you might engage the Enterprise at 3 levels for better success.



My presentation at ISPI from 2002 and 2003 – updated in 2010 – Voice of the Customer at 3 Levels:

VoC at 3 Levels – ISPI – 2003 – 2010  – 29 page PDF – this was an Encore Session (rated in the top 5 from the previous year) and covers Aligning to the Voice of the Customers at 3 Levels – for ISD/HPT organizations.

My 2001 Book – T&D Systems View:


For the Free PDF and other Early Reviews – and information about ordering the Paperback or Kindle – please go – here.


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L&D: Sharing Performance Support & L&D Content

Sharing Can Reduce Your First & Life Cycle Costs

Align your Performance Support and L&D Content to the Processes of your Enterprise – built/bought – and Share to reduce your Life Cycle Costs.

The trick of course is to do so without watering down the content to generic uselessness.

It’s a thing – that: generic useless content.

Here’s an Organization Chart – using my L-C-S Framework for each unit (Division/SBU, Function, Department, Team, whatever).


L-C-S is a framework of mine – a WBS – Work Breakdown Structure if you will, of:

  • Leadership Processes
  • Core Processes
  • Support Processes


See this next graphic for a blow-up of the new element added to the graphic above in the red circle. Most Processes in the L and S are highly shareable.


Most Processes in the Core are unique – it’s what makes Sales different than Purchasing.


See this next graphic for a blow-up of the new element added to the graphic above in the red circle. Which is my Fishbone Diagram (with a tip of the hat to the Ishikawa Diagram from the 1950s).


Deming and Juran (two Quality Gurus) stated that between 80- to 90 percent of all quality issues were due to the system and not to individual performance. Deming later changed his number t0 94%. Rummler suggested that it was 80%.

In any event – most improvement will come from some other intervention than L&D Course or Resources (which are all a sub-set of Performance Support IMO).


See this next graphic for a an Enterprise Content Architecture addressing the Enabler-set of the graphic above in the red circle: Awareness, Knowledge, Skills.


Tier 2 and 4 and 5 are aligned directly to the Processes.

All of them – all of the Processes? Perhaps not.

Perhaps only the more critical – per Enterprise Unit (Department/Team, etc.).

It’s a Business Decision – not an L&D Decision IMO.


But if Performance Support or L&D Content on “Strategic Planning” or “Budgeting” or “Hiring” can be shared – why not share it – and administrate it to keep it current?


Align your Performance Support and L&D Content to the Processes of your Enterprise – built/bought – and Share to reduce your Life Cycle Costs.

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