L&D: Sharing Performance Support & L&D Content

Sharing Can Reduce Your First & Life Cycle Costs

Align your Performance Support and L&D Content to the Processes of your Enterprise – built/bought – and Share to reduce your Life Cycle Costs.

The trick of course is to do so without watering down the content to generic uselessness.

It’s a thing – that: generic useless content.

Here’s an Organization Chart – using my L-C-S Framework for each unit (Division/SBU, Function, Department, Team, whatever).


L-C-S is a framework of mine – a WBS – Work Breakdown Structure if you will, of:

  • Leadership Processes
  • Core Processes
  • Support Processes


See this next graphic for a blow-up of the new element added to the graphic above in the red circle. Most Processes in the L and S are highly shareable.


Most Processes in the Core are unique – it’s what makes Sales different than Purchasing.


See this next graphic for a blow-up of the new element added to the graphic above in the red circle. Which is my Fishbone Diagram (with a tip of the hat to the Ishikawa Diagram from the 1950s).


Deming and Juran (two Quality Gurus) stated that between 80- to 90 percent of all quality issues were due to the system and not to individual performance. Deming later changed his number t0 94%. Rummler suggested that it was 80%.

In any event – most improvement will come from some other intervention than L&D Course or Resources (which are all a sub-set of Performance Support IMO).


See this next graphic for a an Enterprise Content Architecture addressing the Enabler-set of the graphic above in the red circle: Awareness, Knowledge, Skills.


Tier 2 and 4 and 5 are aligned directly to the Processes.

All of them – all of the Processes? Perhaps not.

Perhaps only the more critical – per Enterprise Unit (Department/Team, etc.).

It’s a Business Decision – not an L&D Decision IMO.


But if Performance Support or L&D Content on “Strategic Planning” or “Budgeting” or “Hiring” can be shared – why not share it – and administrate it to keep it current?


Align your Performance Support and L&D Content to the Processes of your Enterprise – built/bought – and Share to reduce your Life Cycle Costs.

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L&D: Learning To Learn

Asking – Answering – Checking Answers to Questions

According to Brethower and Smalley – in their book:

Dale Brethower and Karolyn Smalley
Performance-Based Instruction: Linking Training to Business Results
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998


3 Excerpts from the Book Review by Charles Bishop

The authors, Dale Brethower and Karolyn Smalley–the former a professor of psychology at Western Michigan University and the latter a management consultant and former human resource development administrator–argue that applying the principles of performance-based instruction will improve productivity in both the workplace and the classroom.

Part One outlines a “practical approach to training issues” by essentially detailing in workbook fashion how to answer behavioral objectives guru Robert Mager’s three questions: 1) Where am I going; 2) How shall I get there; and 3) How will I know when I’ve arrived? The importance of teamwork, guided observation and guided practice, the demonstration of mastery and the often discussed implications of the Hawthorne Effect are included in this section.

Part Two suggests how organizations can become performance-based through the application of principles outlined in the work of Marcia Heiman and J. Slomianko in their book Learning to Learn: Critical Thinking Skills for the Quality Workforce (1994), the title of which is copyrighted as an educational process and used repeatedly as a mantra during Brethower’s and Smalley’s discussion.

What is “learning to learn”? As briefly defined by the authors, “. . .the full process is asking, answering, and checking answers to questions” (p. 161). Of course, the method also weaves into the process a learner-centered classroom focus, a teacher model emphasizing facilitation and guidance rather than “sage on the stage,” and measurable instructional outcomes–themes that have been popular in schools of education and among behavioral psychologists since the 1960s (and much before that in the work of psychologists John Watson, B.F. Skinner and Fred Keller).

PDF of the full Bishop book review: PB Instruction – Book Review by C Bishop


I had read this book soon after it came out and I discussed the concept of Learning to Learn with Dale – whom I’ve know since the early 1980s via NSPI/ISPI. I even served on his board when he was President of ISPI in 1999.

I did not have access to most of the references and resources Dr. Dale pointed me to back then – and I am unable to find those that I did access in my files today. But here are some other online sources for your follow up – including his and wife Karolyn’s book:

Performance-Based Instruction: https://www.amazon.com/Performance-Based-Instruction-Microsoft-Word-diskette/dp/0787911194

Behavior Analysis of Human Learning:  https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jjba/9/1/9_KJ00001021552/_pdf

Performance-based instruction part 4: Assuring that learning occurs and transfers to the job: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pfi.4170310613/full

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L&D: Modular Lesson Mapping

Modular Lessons for ReUse

It will be easier to update the chunks (segments) of a Lesson to make them appropriate/ more appropriate for other Target Audiences – if they are designed, in a modular manner, to accommodate that.


What Would Be Updated/Changed?

The Instructional Activities – in PACT lingo – the modular sub-units within a Lesson of:  INFO, DEMO and APPO.

The INFOs‘ examples of how it applies in YOUR JOB.

The DEMO itself of applying it in YOUR JOB.

The APPOs of increasing difficulty and/or other applications in YOUR JOB. To insure that the Application Exercises are authentic enough – to help with Transfer leading to Impact and ROI.

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L&D: Tuesday L&D Processes Audit 03: Enterprise Strategic Plans Surveillance Process

T&D Process  1.1: Enterprise Strategic Plans Surveillance Process

Note: In my 2001 book I continued my decades old name for the profession as T&D – Training & Development.

Convert for your use as necessary. I will use both T&D and L&D in this weekly series for 2018.


Not all loose processes need to be tightened up.

You should only do that Investment if the Returns warrant.


Learning By Design vs Learning By Chance

When the Cost of Non-Conformance of poor Process/people Performance warrants the Investment in T&D/ Learning/Knowledge Management Content – then make those investments.

And – just because an L&D profession can determine a valid Learning Need and gap in Content – does not in and of itself warrant meeting that need – in any manner.

It’s a Business Decision. 


The L-C-S Framework View

I use both views…


Overview of the Big Picture


T&D Process 1.1: Enterprise Strategic Plans Surveillance Process

Process Purpose

The Enterprise Strategic Plans Surveillance Process ensures that the T&D system, including the T&D leadership and their T&D Governance and Advisory System, is acutely aware of all of the strategic business drivers of the various components of the enterprise and takes those into account when generating T&D’s own strategic and operational plans and activities.



Process Description

The Enterprise Strategic Plans Surveillance Process deliberately and systematically engages the key elements of the enterprise, typically via the T&D Governance and Advisory structures, to determine those showstopping needs that will help or hinder the accomplishment of the strategic intent for those business-critical needs. Not all needs across the enterprise are equal in their potential payback.

This proactive uncovering of the potential enterprise investments in T&D by the T&D system, as led by T&D leadership in collaboration with both the T&D Advisory and Governance Process elements, is critical to the viability of the T&D system. The system and processes put in place should formally elicit annual strategic plans of the enterprise.

This will lead to uncovering exactly where the key stakeholders, the shareholders of the enterprise, would want their strategic bets placed.

The Enterprise Strategic Plans Surveillance Process interfaces with many of the other T&D systems’ processes.

For More About This Process In the T&D Systems View

See my 2001 book: T&D Systems View.


Click on image to link to the download page.

T&D Systems View is also available as a $15 Paperback book – and $7.50 as a Kindle – for more information and/or to order – please go – here.

This 2018 Weekly Series Continues Next Tuesday

For Past Series Posts search this site using: “Tuesday L&D Processes Audit”

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L&D: Enabling Performance

Requires More Than Knowledge & Skills & Competencies

Performance Competence – at any level of the Enterprise – requires enough of the right enablers to be in place – including people with the right knowledge and skills.


My Adaptation of the Ishikawa Diagram

The key division of Process enablers is human and non-human (environmental).


Performance Analysis

With a Gap Analysis – links back to Enterprise Systems in place that should be/could be addressing and resolving any gaps.


Provisioning Systems 

I divide the enablers – and “provisioning” systems into those dealing with the humans in the processes and the non-human elements.


My Model for Organizing Processes at the Department Level

Organized into three grouping:

  • Leadership
  • Core (both Management and Team/Individual)
  • Support


In Between the Department and the Organization/ Enterprise

Like the branches of a tree…


At the Enterprise Level

Every portion of the Org Chart represents a collection of Processes – owned by and/or participated in – by that Department.


Knowledge/Skills Are But One of Twelve Variables

Including the Process itself as a key variable.


A Reference

There are many more throughout this website, but this is free and complete.


Modeling Mastery Performance and Systematically Deriving the Enablers for Performance Improvement – by Guy W. Wallace, CPT – Chapter 11 of the Handbook of Human Performance Technology – 3rd Edition – 2006.

This methodology was first published in this 1984 article in ISPI’s (then NSPI’s) PIJ in November 1984.

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L&D: Organizing Curated and Created Content for Enabling Performance Competence

PowerPoint Slide Show

Of the following 21 Slides… for you to download… as you wish…

KMS of Curated and Created Content

For those long-time followers – from even before this Blog started in 2004 – from back to when I published in my own Quarterly Newsletters (going back to the mid 1980s) – I’ve tied together Training and Learning and Knowledge Management.

I’ve known for a long time that enabling Performance was going to require more than Training – due to the Forgetting Curve and Cognitive Load (limitations) – for two of many factors.

When I started building out my ISD methods back in 1983 (the start of the book that eventually became “lean-ISD” in 1999) I knew that I wanted those ISD methods and tools/techniques to be a subset of a Performance Improvement methodology and tools/techniques.

And that whatever was needed by the learner/Performer was going to need to be relevant to their Performance Requirements – contextual and used/usable in their Performance Context – and have impact in their long-term learning of How to Perform – or merely Support their ability to Perform without them memorizing that mastery.

I always saw KM and KMS to be the warehouse of Performance-Enabling Stuff.

So – Imagine If You Will

A LMS warehouse interface for each Critical Job in the Enterprise fully loaded and organized…


Less-Than-Critical Jobs would be less loaded – but still organized. They’d have to rely on more 20 and 70 than 10.

Much Content is shareable across many jobs in this scheme…


Key is seeing the shared and unique Processes Department by Department…


Sharing happens not only across Individual Contributors but across Departments…


This is how I see Departments – or lower level teams or higher level functions…


What’s it all about? It’s about Performance Competence – of Individuals, Teams, Departments, Functions, Divisions/SBUs or the Enterprise itself and its Value Chain…


What’s Required? Check with the Stakeholders of those entities and for each Process…


A WBS – Work Breakdown Structure of Work…


Performance Model Charts capture more details than Process Maps…


It’s much more than Outputs and Tasks – it’s also about the Enabling Knowledge/Skills…


The Knowledge/Skills Matrices are used to both “capture” and “report out” these enablers…


Content Created or Curated is then Warehoused…


To help with determining what to take and when a Path is created…


But then to personalize it further, an Individual Development Plan is developed…


All covered in this 1999 book…


An update and extension into Performance Improvement from 2011…


Chicken-Egg — EPPI-PACT…


The 12 Variables of Process Performance…


A Framework of generic Entities who provide the Enablers to the Processes…


It’s About Performance…




Happy to hear (read) your questions, comments or concerns. Comment below.

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