88 Minute Video Discussing Performance Modeling with Harijanto Tjahjono

Harijanto Tjahjono – Director, Center of Curriculum and Learning Development at University of Surabaya – Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia.

We chatted via Zoom about his questions after he went through both of my Just-In-Time Courses – at the LDC – and we addressed both Performance Modeling and then Systematically Deriving the Knowledge & Skill Enablers.

This video is 88 minutes in length.


Examples from Performance-Based ISD Efforts

I have 2 Just-In-Time Courses over at The LDC – The Learning & Development Conference – a 6 week long affair – sponsored by The LDA – The Learning & Development Accelerator – which I also serve as a member of the Executive Board of Advisors.

Here is a GIF about both of my Just-In-Time Courses.

1 Day Ago

Thiagi just dropped some feedback on me in one of those courses, so I made some “Late Adds” to both of my Just-In-Time Courses…

A 2011 Blog Post About Performance Modeling:

A set of examples of both Performance Model Charts and Knowledge/Skill Matrices from 1986

A set of examples of both Performance Model Charts and Knowledge/Skill Matrices from 1993

A set of project outputs from a 2003 Curriculum Architecture Design for 2 levels of management at the Norfolk naval Shipyard including an Analysis Report with Performance Model Charts and Knowledge/Skill Matrices

I thought I’d share them with you here on this Blog Post too.

3 Days Ago

I did a 90-minute Zoom Meeting with Harijanto Tjahjono – Director, Center of Curriculum and Learning Development at University of Surabaya – Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia, about his questions after he went through both Just-In-Time Courses.

He tried out Performance Modeling – and we talked through some of the nuances related to this Performance Model chart output of his – and how that is used to systematically derive the Enabling Knowledge/Skills. I video recorded our session, and may post that someday (soon).

This methodology was covered in my 2020 book.

See more about it here – as well as my 14 prior books.


Video: ThoughtFlow in the WorkFlow and the 3 Ds

This video is 3:04 minutes in length.

The 3 Ds of ThoughtFlow … Making Discriminations – Making Determinations – Making Decisions.

ISD Analysts need to work with Master Performers and Other Subject Matter Experts to define the 3 Ds during: Analysis – Design – and Development.

Getting deeper and deeper into the 3 Ds as they progress through their ISD process.

This is the topic of my next book – currently under review by my Early Reviewers before I finalize it based on their feedback. I have the feedback from everyone but one, and I am just waiting on feedback from Dick Clark, EdD.

I hope that the book will be out sometime in early September.

Find all of Guy’s books on his Author’s Page at Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/-/e/B08JQC4C4V…


Book 16 Making the Final Turn Toward the Finish Line

I think the book will become available yet in late July. It will be $20 USD for the Kindle version and $25 USD for a Paperback version. 406 pages cover to cover (right now).

I’m waiting on a proof copy to page through once it arrives and then I’ll have final-final updates, or I’ll just click some buttons and publish it.

See all of my books on my Amazon Author’s Page – here.

Thanks to Mirjam Neelen for her Foreword!

Mirjam Neelen
Head of Global Learning Design & Learning Sciences
Co-author of Evidence-Informed Learning Design

“Our clients want us to move fast so we don’t have time to do more analysis.”

“We don’t have access to SMEs.”

“We can’t do needs analysis or test learning solutions with our people as they’re too busy.”

Learning professionals often mutter these types of explanations between their teeth when delivering half-baked, shallow solutions. Sometimes we feel sorry for ourselves. Then we complain about being order takers, about the business not taking us seriously, or not seeing the value we provide.

My hope is that this book will help us all realize that it’s mostly us and not them, that we can definitely take control and improve our practice to deliver more impactful, performance-focused learning solutions.

Guy Wallace – in my humble opinion – is a rare gem in the Learning & Development field. He has shown over and over again that if clients have identified an important performance problem, they are willing to invest the time in solving it.

What makes Guy different? Why do his clients listen to him, and why has he been able to successfully analyze performance problems and deliver holistic solutions for decades? Perhaps he’s taught his dog Bueller some tricks, but he surely isn’t a magician?

I believe it’s simple. Guy Wallace knows his stuff. He knows what he’s doing and why, and he’s able to articulate it clearly to his clients. They trust him because he’s able to demonstrate that his process works. He delivers value. And we’re lucky, as through this book, he empowers all of us to become a bit like him.

Partly, this book repeats the process that Guy describes in detail in his previous book ‘Conducting Performance-Based Instructional Analysis, providing you with the right level of context to understand the role of thoughtflow analysis in his overall design process.

The book helps you reflect on some of the things that we, as learning professionals, could (and should) do better and Guy clearly shows, step by step, how to do it and why to do it that way. The deep dive into the thoughtflow analysis deserves your full attention as it’s a glaring gap in our usual practice.

The first part of the thoughtflow analysis, focusing on the overt behaviors, happens in Guy’s initial analysis phase. After identifying the ‘Areas of Performance’ (these can also be thought of as major duties, key results areas, or accomplishments) in the context of the performance problem, the next step is to determine the key outputs and their key measures (in other words, what are the deliverables, and what does good look like?). Then, for each output, he conducts a task analysis. This is where the first phase of the thoughtflow analysis comes in, where he teases out the overt behaviors. In other words: The behaviors that we can observe, the ‘what do to.’ 

It’s quite trendy nowadays to stop there, flowing from the idea that performance matters more than learning. Tom Gilbert used to call this ‘The Cult of Behavior’ as if the observable behaviors are the means to an end. They’re not. In particular, when we’re dealing with complex tasks at work (tasks that require us to constantly analyze the situation as we’re dealing with different variables depending on the context and hence, we constantly need to ask ourselves questions and make considerations in order to make the best decision for that particular situation), different circumstances might require different behaviors.

This is why this book is so important. It clearly makes the distinction between the analysis to determine ‘ideal performance’ and the analysis we need to do to ensure that we design interventions that help people achieve that ideal performance.

To help people learn how to perform critical tasks to achieve ideal performance, we also need to figure out what the likely performance gaps and their probable causes (e.g., a process issue, an environmental issue, a knowledge & skill issue, etcetera) are for the target audience, as well as the enabling knowledge and skills for each output-task for each (critical) role.

Guy does and explains this well. He first anchors the design work using the overt behavioral tasks (the ‘what to do’), and then he works with master performers to derive the covert cognitive tasks (the thinking that guides the doing), determining the critical discriminations, determinations, and decisions for each task.

As Guy explains: Discriminations in the Performance Context lead to Determinations on how to carry on in either a standard manner or to switch to a non-standard approach, which then leads to Decisions as to which non-standard approach to use.

I’m convinced that Guy’s book will not only trigger you to think about your practice differently. It will also provide you with a step-by-step guide that you will go back to over and over again when working with clients.

Much of what Guy describes in this new book reminds me of experiences I’ve had with my own clients. Initially, they grumble that I’m asking too many questions, taking up too much of their time. They ask if I can please just take their content and run with it. But when they start to see there’s a gap between the identified performance problem and the content they originally thought would ‘fix it,’ they start to understand that more work needs to be done. Even better, when they start explaining what they do, the steps to perform the tasks, what good looks like, the rationale behind what they’re doing, and so forth, they become very enthusiastic and are usually volunteering more time. They also become very creative, contributing fantastic ideas for effective, efficient, and enjoyable learning solutions. Why? Because they see the value and they see how they can play a part in delivering value to their people and the business. Believe me, using this book, you can, too.

Thanks to my Early Reviewers for their Feedback and the Quotes!

Dick (Richard E.) Clark, Ed.D.
Emeritus Professor of Educational Psychology and Technology in the Rossier School of Education and Emeritus Clinical Research Professor of Surgery in the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California.

“Guy Wallace has again produced an excellent update of what we’ve learned recently about the design, development, and assessment of training and performance improvement initiatives.  

For example, his discussion importantly emphasizes new developments at the task analysis stage.  He provides a useful overview of the differences between, and interactions among, expert’s cognitive and behavioral skills and knowledge – with an emphasis on ‘unconscious” or “tacit” cognitive (mental) decisions necessary to perform any work task.  He alerts us to the fact that experts are not able to describe 70 percent of the decisions they constantly make as they work and so unintentionally fail to report them to designers – and he provides work arounds to help designers identify decisions missed during analysis.  

In addition, Guy couples his update with what we’ve come to expect from him – useful and comprehensive process models that help designers pull together the many operations that occur at every stage as training is analyzed, shaped, and presented.”


Jeff Dalto
Performance Improvement & Learning Specialist 

“Guy Wallace has written another great book to add to the bookshelf. Buy and read this book carefully for at least two reasons:

(1) a helpful, very-detailed walkthrough of the ADDIE-like method(s) Guy uses for performance-improvement and training projects with his clients, including lots of helpful sample templates and even self-practice exercises(!) as well as

(2) a helpful focus on cognitive task analysis, or CTA, which aims to get at the cognitive tasks performed by a person during a job task along with just the more easily-observable physical tasks.

Get it now and give it a read, then refer back to it over time as needed.”


Matthew C. Day

Anthropology Ph.D. Research Student

& Senior NHS Education and Development Practitioner

The 3 Ds of ThoughtFlow Analysis for Instructional Development is Wallace’s sixteenth book that continues to chronicle his instructional design processes, underlying philosophies, and practical methods that he has adopted, adapted, constructed, and developed since 1979. This book compliments his previous work, Conducting performance-based Instructional Analysis: In Every Phase of an Instructional Development Effort (2020), by expanding substantially on how he elicits non-conscious, subtle cognitive tasks that are often shrouded by the ‘curse of knowledge’ bias.

The book is structured into five sections: The first section sets expectations, defines the key concepts and scope of the text. The second section guides the reader through a toolbox of Wallace’s analysis of the stakeholder requirements and learning needs. In the third section, the analysis is mapped and built into an instructional design which, in the fourth section, is progressed into the development of instructional content before ending in section five with a summary.

If read from start to finish, the book not only functions as a toolbox for instructional designers but allows Wallace to train you through the text. Wallace offers detailed explanations with Examples and a ‘now you try it’ element at the end of each chapter, complete with templates to get started. The generosity of assets throughout the text is notable. In addition to Wallace’s processes, he respectfully provides a detailed account of the references after each chapter that inform and support his practices. Similarly, he encourages readers to be creative, adopt what works and adapt the rest so that, by the end of the book, you will have created your own personalised approach from Wallace’s lessons.

The book has a linear structure aligned to project delivery and works well with a conversational style and tone. It reads as if you were sat with Wallace, talking through how to make the necessary discriminations, determinations, and decisions at each stage, and he encourages you to test out each component for yourself. This style, along with the embedded activities, created a good pace for the book and kept the pages turning for me as I could see the outputs from each chapter. By completing all the activities, you will end up with your own variant of Wallace’s approaches. To further support the reader’s development, Wallace includes a trove of carefully selected resources throughout the main sections and further resources in a generous bounty of appendices.

I would recommend this book to those new to learning and development and experienced practitioners alike. This book reproduces its content with the reader by offering a written asynchronous guided process of co-design. I felt at a substantial advantage having read Conducting performance-based Instructional Analysis: In Every Phase of an Instructional Development Effort (2020). However, this book provides full explanations of its content and clearly functions as a standalone text. A valuable book for anyone looking to take the lead on performance-based accelerated customer/stakeholder-driven training and development.”


David James
CLO, Looop.co

“Thoughtflow can be easily neglected when designing for instruction and performance, but Guy draws on decades of real-life experience, where he’s operated ahead-of-the-curve, to unpack it for both performance and real results. What this means is that Guy sees past the usual Holy Grail of ‘engagement’ that too many L&D teams see as success in order to impact what really matters to employees and organisations. This book is a complete and logical exploration of each stage of the process, from analysis to designing for Thoughtflow and combining it with robust behavioral instruction to take any L&D to the level at which it should operate. A must for all who truly seek to impact performance and results.”


Patti Shank, Ph.D., Researcher, Author,
Facilitator of Write Better Multiple-Choice Questions

“We simply can’t design relevant and valuable training without understanding workers’ tasks and outputs. Without understanding them, we don’t develop skills. We develop content (only), and that’s a terribly poor substitute.

Guy’s new book will make it easier for you to make sense of analyzing tasks and outputs. Since understanding tasks and outputs is critical for writing good multiple-choice questions (and instructional activities), I’ll be recommending it.”


Dawn Snyder, Ph.D., C.P.T.
CEO & Managing Principal
Dawn Snyder Associates

“Guy Wallace’s latest book expands on the theme of focusing curriculum design efforts on performance by ensuring that designers capture SMEs’ overt thought processes (“ThoughtFlow”) as part of the analysis process and leverage this information throughout the entire design and development cycle. (This is in addition to documenting explicit processes/behaviors.) He frames this effort in the context of his Modular Curriculum Development Process, which is explicated in previous works and here as well.

The key to considering overt behaviors is presented as a step-by-step approach that includes Discriminations, Determinations, and Decisions. These are labels of important decision points as a subject-matter-expert approaches variable work.

The idea that instructional designers and others should consider thought processes is key to supporting performance in today’s knowledge workers and is frequently overlooked in contemporary practice.”


Will Thalheimer, Ph.D.

“In Guy Wallace’s new book, The 3 Ds of ThoughtFlow Analysis, Guy shows us how to uncover learner performance needs with a proven process that is both easy and powerful.

Based on Guy’s four decades of doing this work, the book is filled with practical insights. Page after page, I found myself saying, “Wow! That’s a great point! I need to remember that lesson learned!”

As L&D professionals, we know we should be doing robust cognitive task analysis, but we shy away from it. Now we have no more excuses! By following Guy’s pressure-tested approach, we can create performance-focused learning interventions!”


Book 16 Since 1994

My books are all on ISD – Instructional Systems Design and/or PI – Performance Improvement.

Next – on to Book 17: EPPI Thinking


Video: PACT – My Branded ISD Methods Since 1989

This video is 3:26 minutes in length.

In 1989 I branded my ISD Methods … ADDIE derivatives … as The PACT Processes.

My reframing of ADDIE in the 1980s and 90s – which is simply a Project Planning & Management framework and NOT A DESIGN MODEL – was intended to lead to a more “Systems View” of an ISD Function.

It is applicable and robust to name/label changes such as L&D, LXD, etc.

I have multiple books since 1999 that address all of this.

Find all of Guy’s books on his Author’s Page at Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/-/e/B08JQC4C4V…


Wednesday HPT Video Matinee

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In 2017 I started using Skype to enable me to broaden my reach beyond F2F recordings. Then in 2020 I started using Zoom.

Again, I have posted each of these videos on YouTube. They, unfortunately, are on multiple YouTube sites. Please use this link to the Index – here.

Guy’s HPT Video Series

The HPT Video Series … formerly known as the HPT Practitioner and HPT Legacy Video Series … was started by Guy W. Wallace in 2008 as a means of sharing the diversity of HPT Practitioners, and the diversity of HPT Practices in the workplace and in academia.

The full set of videos – over 125 – may be found and linked to – here.

HPT – Human Performance Technology – is the application of science – the “technology” part – for Performance Improvement.

As the late Don Tosti noted, “All performance is a human endeavor.”

Whether your label for HPT is that, or Performance Improvement, or Human Performance Improvement, it is all about Evidence Based Practices for Performance Improvement at the Individual level, the Team level, the Process level, the Department level, the Functional level, the Enterprise level, and at the level of Society/World.

HPT Practitioners might operate at any of these levels, as this Video Series clearly demonstrates.

Although ISPI – the International Society for Performance Improvement is the professional home of many HPT Practitioners – the concepts, models, methods, tools and techniques are not limited to any one professional affinity group or professional label.

ISPI just happens to be where I learned about HPT – and has been my professional home since 1979.

This Series Has Evolved Since 2008

These videos were first posted on Google Video, then they were moved to Blink, and now they may all be found on YouTube. And my name for them has changed as well…

HPT Practitioner Video Podcasts and HPT Legacy Video Podcasts

– Practitioner Series – short 2-10 minutes, following a script. Intended to show the diversity of HPT and HPT Practitioners. (2008-2018)

– Legacy Series – longer 15-40+ minutes, also scripted, with added stories of other NSPI/ ISPI’ers from the earlier days of the Society or others who were of great influence. Intended to capture the stories of the people who influenced us. (2008-2018)

– HPT Video Series (2019+) – is a continuation of the first two types of videos in this series, but with less focus on capturing NSPI/ISPI members – and expanding out to any and all who use Evidence Based Practices in Performance Improvement regardless of any affiliation with ISPI or not.

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