ISD is a Subset of Performance Improvement

It’s All About Performance

In an Enterprise Context.

ISD – Instructional Systems Design … is a Subset of … PI – Performance Improvement.

And so my PACT Processes for ISD – is a subset of EPPI, my methodology set for PI.

EPPI – Enterprise Process Performance Improvement.

pact-eppi

Both are squarely focused on Performance – and differ mostly in the scope of the analysis of the enablers of Performance.

EPPI Starts in Stage I

Determine the improvement priorities in Stage I.

Fixes come – as appropriate – to the ROI potential – in Stage II.

EPPI Stage 1

Stage I looks at the Big Picture.

This big picture.

Slide1

Another view of Process and it’s enablers.

EPPI Fishbone 14 Variables - Process

My Starter Framework for Analysis of a Department

Or Function. Or Organization.

Analyze non-overlapping Performance. You have to have some way to cover it all with minimum overlaps and gaps.

Slide3

My Performance & Gap Analysis Job Aid

Perf Analysis Job Aid

And this resource … Chapter 11 … from the 2006 book:

Handbook of Human Performance Technology:

Modeling Mastery Performance and Systematically Deriving the Enablers for Performance Improvement – by Guy W. Wallace, CPT – Chapter 11 of the Handbook of Human Performance Technology – 3rd Edition – 2006. This methodology was first published in this 1984 article in ISPI’s (then NSPI’s) PIJ in November 1984.

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Then Stage I … Leads to Stage II

Learning might be a key part – or merely a supporting part – of the solution set.

EPPI Stage 1 and 2

The fixes involve addressing gaps from and/or in the source organizations – next graphic – my framework for adapting to the client’s organization structure.

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It’s all about performance. 

Slide1

Focus on the Performance Requirements …

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… and Enable them.

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8 Years After – Remembering Rummler

RIP Geary A. Rummler

April 16, 1937 – October 29, 2008

2009-03-07-031

Geary & Guy In 1982

82-008guy26gearymtec

My Past Posts About the Good Doctor

Here.

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GAR

For more about Geary Rummler – please go here.

For his Publication Library – please go here.

My Favorite Videos:

1981

1986

1986

2008

Geary Rummler Tribute at ISPI 2009

Thanks Geary! For that you shared and taught us. Thank you.

# # #

My 6 Pack Revisited

5 Years Ago I Completed An Update Effort

I took apart several of my prior books on Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and Performance Improvement (PI) for an update and reconfiguration. 2011.

The 6 Pack…

PACT 6 Pack

The 2011 Wallace 6 Pack Sources

The 6 Pack is sourced/updated primarily from 4 of my older books – and many Blog Posts, since 2007.

Those source Books include:

  • Quality Road Map
  • lean-ISD
  • T&D Systems View
  • Management Areas of Performance

Note: lean-ISD is the original source most impacted by the reconfiguration. See this next graphic.

Choice to Update or Reconfigure

Let’s revisit the six books of the 6 Pack.

The 6 Pack Book #1: The Curriculum Manager’s Handbook

2011 a Curr Mgr HB

Book Overview:

A Curriculum Manager is responsible for addressing the performance-based learning needs and performance support needs of targeted Learners/Performers as identified or prioritized by their internal customers and stakeholders.

Success is measured in the timely availability of performance-required content before and/or during the moment of need.

Content may be of any media and mode that is appropriate to both the needs and constraints of the Learners – who are Performers – in an Enterprise Learning Context. Included in the blend can be any of the following, and is not limited to:

• Instructor-led Training
• E-Learning
• Coached/Mentored Learning
• Task Assignments
• Job Assignments
• Books, chapters and article reading assignments
• Guided Discovery Learning

Curriculum – a somewhat old fashioned term – is a set of content that is as rigorous as required and as flexible as feasible.

In an Enterprise context – it is content that enables Performance Competence: the ability to Perform Task to Produce Outputs to Stakeholder Requirements.

The Curriculum Manager’s performance competence centers on the core processes of architecture, development and deployment of performance enabling instructional and informational content for critical target audiences – and in managing all of the leadership and support processes that enable that.

Additionally…

Table of Contents:

Acknowledgments i
1 What Does a Curriculum Manager Do? 1
2 AoP: Stakeholder Needs Assessment & Alignment 27
3 AoP: Strategic Planning & Management 53
4 AoP: Operations Planning & Management 65
5 AoP: Results Measurement 79
6 AoP: Improvement Planning 95
7 AoP: Communications 107
8 AoP: Product & Service Line Design 120
9 AoP: Product & Service Line Development 143
10 AoP: Product & Service Line Deployment 169
11 AoP: Process Design & Redesign 193
12 AoP: Human Assets 203
13 AoP: Environmental Assets 222
14 AoP: Special Assignments 241
15 Summary & Close 247
16 Additional Related Resources & Reference 254

Order Info for Kindlehere. $7.50

Order Info for Paperbackhere.  $15.00

The 6 Pack Book #2: Analysis of Performance Competence 

2011 b AofPCR

Book Overview:

This “how to” book provides guidance in conducting analysis efforts focused on Process Improvement for Performance Competence – which is the Ability to Perform Task to Produce Outputs to Stakeholder Requirements. The analysis outputs can be used for populating ERP systems, process improvement design and redesign, defining jobs for recruiting & selection, input to instructional design and pay-for-performance systems, and many other Enterprise applications.

Additionally…

Table of Contents:

Acknowledgments & Formatting Note i
1 Beginning with the End in Mind: Performance Competence 1
2 Data Logic Details: The Stakeholders 27
3 Data Logic Details: The Processes 43
4 Data Logic Details: Environmental Asset Requirements and the Environmental Asset Management Systems 99
5 Data Logic Details: Human Asset Requirements and the Human Asset Management Systems 116
6 Methods Logic Details: Individual Interviews, Observations and Document Reviews 128
7 Methods Logic Details: Group Analysis Process 146
8 Planning and Preparing for Your Analysis Efforts End–to–End 180
9 Book Summary and Close 192
10 Related Resources and References 197

Order Info for Kindlehere. $7.50

Order Info for Paperbackhere.   $15.00

The 6 Pack Book #3: The PACT Processes for performance-based Curriculum Architecture Design

2011 c Pb CAD

Book Overview:

This is a How-to-Book.

Bottom line: the Curriculum Architecture Design process identifies all of the T&D – Training & Development (a.k.a.: L&D – Learning & Development) that “could be” and then prioritizes efforts to build/acquire all of the priority gap T&D that “should be.”

Post-CAD resourcing by the Customers and Stakeholders insures what T&D actually “will be.”

This is a proven set of ISD methods have been employed on hundreds of projects by the authors and those he has trained since 1982.

Additionally…

Table of Contents:

1 What is Curriculum Architecture Design – CAD? 1
2 CAD Benefits for the Customers of ISD – Instructional Systems Design 33
3 CAD Benefits for the Suppliers  of ISD – Instructional Systems Design 56
4 CAD Benefits for the Enterprise Stakeholders 73
5 The CAD Process Phases, Outputs, and Teams 88
6 Phase 1: Project Planning & Kick-Off 100
7 Phase 2: Analysis 123
8 Phase 3: Design 153
9 Phase 4: Implementation Planning 185
10 CAD Infrastructure and Environmental Support Requirements 199
11 CAD Supplier Teams and Roles 217
12 CAD Customer Teams and Roles 225
13 CAD Practitioner Knowledge and Skills Development 242
14 Other Uses for the Analysis Data and Analysis Data Extension 276
15 Book Summary and Close 287

Order Info for Kindlehere.  $7.50

Order Info for Paperbackhere.   $15.00

The 6 Pack Book #4: The PACT Processes for performance-based Modular Curriculum Development

2011 d Pb MCD

Book Overview:

This is a How-to-Book.

Bottom line: the Modular Curriculum Development process develops or acquires T&D – Training & Development (a.k.a.: L&D – Learning & Development) that develops the Learners’ Performance Competence.

This is a proven set of ISD methods have been employed on hundreds of projects by the authors and those he has trained since 1982.

Additionally…

Table of Contents:

Acknowledgments and Formatting Note

i

1

What is Modular Curriculum Development – MCD? 1

2

MCD Benefits for the Customers of ISD – Instructional Systems Design 23

3

MCD Benefits for the Suppliers of ISD – Instructional Systems Design 37

4

MCD Benefits for the Enterprise Stakeholders 50

5

The MCD Process Phases, Outputs, and Teams 65

6

Phase 1: Project Planning & Kick-Off 75

7

Phase 2: Analysis 101

8

Phase 3: Design 160

9

Phase 4: Development 188

10

Phase 5: Pilot-Test 215

11

Phase 6: Revision & Release 228

12

MCD Infrastructure and Environmental Support Requirements 236

13

MCD Supplier Teams and Roles 249

14

MCD Customer Teams and Roles 259

15

MCD Practitioner Knowledge and Skills Development 278

16

Other Uses for the Analysis Data and Analysis Data Extension 310

17

Book Summary and Close 325

18

Additional Resources and References 330

Order Info for Kindlehere. $7.50

Order Info for Paperbackhere.   $15.00

The 6 Pack Book #5: Developing Your Management Areas of Performance Competence

2011 e D-Y M-AoPC

Book Overview:

This book will enable you to first define the “specific” management performance competencies required for your job and the “enablers” in terms of the knowledge and skills, and the human attributes and values required for performance competence.

Then it will help you target development those enablers for which you see a need.

Additionally…

Table of Contents:

1 Overview of This Book and How to Use It 1
2 Leadership AoP: Stakeholder Relations 20
3 Leadership AoP: Strategic Planning 32
4 Leadership AoP: Operations Planning 40
5 Leadership AoP: Results Measurement 48
6 Leadership AoP: Improvement Planning 57
7 Leadership AoP: Communications 66
8 Core AoP: Planning Work 74
9 Core AoP: Assigning Work 83
10 Core AoP: Monitoring Work 92
11 Core AoP: Troubleshooting Work 101
12 Support AoP: Process Design/ Redesign 111
13 Support AoP: Human Assets Management 123
14 Support AoP: Environmental Assets Management 137
15 Support AoP: Special Assignments 149
16 Book Summary & Close 162

Order Info for Kindlehere.  $7.50

Order Info for Paperbackhere.   $15.00

The 6 Pack Book #6: From Training to Performance Improvement Consulting

2011 f FTTPIC book cover

Book Overview:

This book provides a guide to transforming your organization first to a performance-based Training organization and then to a Performance Consulting organization. It describes in detail the processes of a target ideal state and  assessments of your current state and planning guides to enable you to develop a plan for moving from Training to Performance-based Training and then to Performance Improvement Consulting.

Additionally…

Table of Contents:

Acknowledgments & Formatting Note i
1 Beginning with the End in Mind: Performance Competence 1
2 Data Logic Details: The Stakeholders 27
3 Data Logic Details: The Processes 43
4 Data Logic Details: Environmental Asset Requirements and the Environmental Asset Management Systems 99
5 Data Logic Details: Human Asset Requirements and the Human Asset Management Systems 116
6 Methods Logic Details: Individual Interviews, Observations and Document Reviews 128
7 Methods Logic Details: Group Analysis Process 146
8 Planning and Preparing for Your Analysis Efforts End–to–End 180
9 Book Summary and Close 192
10 Related Resources and References 197

Order Info for Kindlehere.  $7.50

Order Info for Paperbackhere.   $15.00

Previously Announced… New/ Lower Book Retirement Pricing…

For the 6 Pack books and the older books as well.

Retirement Book Pricing 2016-03

PACT – An ISD Methodology-Set

PACT Logo

Free Books Too!

Plus articles. Check out the Resource Tab for article PDFs, videos and audios.

Wallace - ISPI CLT Newsletter Ad for May 2011

It’s All About Performance Competence

PC def b3

Focus on the Performance Competence Requirements – and Enable Them

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The FAT ENCHILADA Award – the 34th Anniversary Reflections

The Importance of the Customer – and Other Stakeholders: Clients

Never work – if you can – for a client of one.

Go for a broader group of stakeholders. Always.

2007-6-16-075

Award Backstory

I was leaving MTEC – Motorola’s Training & Education Center – and about to join Ray Svenson’s consulting business on November 1, 1982.

MTEC colleague John Coné remarked one day … that I was again a very cheerful fellow. He had forgotten that he said. That struck me as it had struck him.

That reinforced my earlier decision … to move on.

MTEC was a great organization, with great leadership – but it had changed for me for the last 9 of my 18 month stay. I had originally skip-level-reported to the new Director, the head of MTEC, but then after 9 months of pretty free reign, I in Chicago, was being micro-manged from afar – Phoenix is afar isn’t it? From Chicago?

I was signing contracts one day, and then breaking them the next day. A design was perfect one day….

It had grown more than weary. Even though I was still working with Geary Rummler on several projects, I knew it was time for me to move on.

And this reminder on my wall, is a most important “cause for occasional pause” – a pause for reflection that is. John Coné wrote the award – that I cherish to this very day – 34 years later.

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Anyway – time flies.

My most coveted award from 1982 reads:

************

Let it be known to all who read that

Guy Wallace

Fm As Tyrant,

Encountering No Client, Has Incredibly, Loosely Approximated our Design Activities

and is hereby awarded this coveted

FAT ENCHILADA

AWARD 

Let it be known that on this 22nd day of October, in the year of our Manufacturing

Functional Manager 1982, an eternal flame was lit in your name at the tomb of the

Unknown Client.

************

And if truth be told… I believe that this was mostly or completely written by John Coné, a fellow TPS – Training Project Supervisor at MTEC at the time – back in the day. Before MTEC became Motorola University. Back when we were a boutique Training and Performance Improvement organization. The place where eventually 6 Sigma came about. The place was always all about that … Performance thing. Ala Rummler … and others.

Because it’s more than just being about Training or Learning.

It’s about Enterprise Performance.

It’s all about THAT.

IMO.

And when we were trying to change the topic/the request back in 1981 and 1982 – from Training to Performance Improvement – we sometimes found ourselves in the middle projects without a clear client.

And that became kind of an inside joke at MTEC – as we all believed in being responsive to our clients and addressing their CBIs – Critical Business Issues – but we often found ourselves at first leading them down that path. The path of Performance Impact and Improvement – and away from a Training path. A path that included an analysis of the current state beyond training needs. An analysis that looked at the system of performance, at the overall context.

I don’t know if there would have been a better way … than having to lead the client initially … on the way to being more responsive without being routinely ineffective … because Training on its own – is seldom effective … as efficient as it might seem at first.

Anyway – this is my award.

And a bit of the backstory behind it.

# # #

xxx

 

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Sometimes My Lesson Designs Start With an APPO or a DEMO Versus a Typical INFO

Note: The flow in Delivery … is different than the flow in the Design effort. This post covers flow from the Delivery perspective – using Design outputs.

Typical Design Flow: INFO – DEMO – APPO

For eventual – post-Development – Delivery…

After the OPEN, most Lesson Maps’ flows … begin with Information – or in PACT Lesson Mapping Speak: INFO.

See the Lesson Map example below. Please assume that Lesson 3 below is – in a particular Event in a particular Path – is preceded by enough coverage of PACT and Performance Analysis and the Group Process – and is followed by whatever is necessary to achieve Performance Competence by design – that this design element is logical in flow and depth in the big picture

slide1

Note that each Instructional Activity – for each INFO or DEMO or APPO – is detailed in another design document format – not covered here in the post.

Start with an APPO When …

However there have been times when the Lesson began … after the OPEN … with an APPO … an Application Exercise … in PACT Lesson Mapping speak.

See the Map example below.

slide5

Why? When?

Perhaps for shock value. Perhaps the need is to make sure that everybody entering into the designed learning experience … is clear that they can’t currently do it … or that they can (and it can be done).

If this was for group paced (classroom or online) I would insure that somehow the Instructor/Facilitator would/could use those that pass the first application test, er, exercise, to help those that may need some coaching.

Getting two for one, so to speak.

And a few times … even-before the OPEN … the Lesson began with an APPO … to be followed by the OPEN.

See the example Map below.

slide3

For even greater shock value.

This was when the client and/or Design Team worried that the target audience would believe that they already knew how to do this – and it would be necessary to prove them wrong (gently or bluntly TBD) … because I had asked them – the client in the prior PST meeting and/or the Design Team as we began.

Start with a DEMO When …

When that would help the Learner mentally prepare for what is to follow – beyond what’s typically in the OPEN – where what they might get in the INFO wouldn’t make sense to all, or enough that it makes sense to preface everything, content-wise, with the big picture – and see the whole thing demonstrated in full.

Perhaps the Parachute Learner should see the preparation of the chute, harness, googles and altimeter, etc, before jumping out of a perfectly good airplane – sets the stage better – for learning about proper folding and packing of the chute.

Otherwise, the learner may not really appreciate the full set of lessons before getting the the big lesson of the Learning Event.

Sometimes that could be just inconvenient – and others times – that could be dangerous.

See the example Lesson Map below.

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Bonus Points

Perhaps you caught that there is something missing in each of the Lesson Maps above.

Perhaps it – the missing stuff – was pushed to another Lesson – and this title and objectives simply didn’t get fixed/sync’d (your hint) – or it was somehow missed in the frenzy of the group process – if not done right – and just not mapped.

Note: in my experience – the Design Team would never let this happen – and this error – whichever it was – would be easily recovered from.

Lesson Design Happens in MCD and IAD, But Not in CAD

Slide4

PACT Is

An ISD – Instructional Systems Design – methodology-set.

PACT Logo

It includes a Design of a Path/Menu of learning experiences designed with performance competence development in mind.

It also includes the Design at the Event Level and at the Module/Lesson level and at the components of a Lesson – which in PACT are known as Instructional Activity.

The alternative, of course, is whatever-whenever-however … the most Informal.

That – is a business decision as well. Not an ISD decision.

Slide3

CADs lead to MCDs.

Slide5

 

PACT is a subset of EPPI

Slide1 (7)

Search under EPPI on this site for more on that.

Articles & Chapter Covering PACT and EPPI

This one on Analysis from the ISPI (then NSPI) Journal in November 1984…

Slide7

Models and Matrices- NSPI PIJ -1984 – 5 page PDF – the first publication of the performance and enabler analysis methods for ISD, from NSPI’s (ISPI’s) Performance & Instruction Journal, November 1984.

And this article on Curriculum Architecture Design – from September 1984 in TRAINING Magazine…

Slide6

CAD – Training Mag – 1984 – 6 page PDF – the first publication about Curriculum Architecture Design via a Group Process – published in Training Magazine in September 1984. Original manuscript (30 pages) – How to Build a Training Structure That Won’t Keep Burning Down.

And … Chapter 11 in this 2006 book:

Slide28 (2)

Modeling Mastery Performance and Systematically Deriving the Enablers for Performance Improvement – by Guy W. Wallace, CPT – Chapter 11 of the Handbook of Human Performance Technology – 3rd Edition – 2006.  This methodology was first published in this 1984 article in ISPI’s (then NSPI’s) PIJ in November 1984.

Presentation Covering PACT CAD

Slide8

CAD – NSPI – 1985 – 21 page PDF – this is the first national presentation on the Curriculum Architecture Design methodology which Guy Wallace delivered at the NSPI Conference on April 24, 1985 (the 1st presentation of this was done for the Chicago Chapter of NSPI the previous fall).

 lean-ISD for Training – Lakewood Conf – 1998 – 33 page PDF – Presentation on “lean-ISD” via the PACT Processes for T&D –  at the 1998 Training Conference – by Guy W. Wallace and Pete Hybert – addressing the 3 levels of Instructional Design: CAD –  Curriculum Architecture Design plus MCD – Modular Curriculum Development (the PACT Process version of ADDIE) and IAD – Instructional Activity Development – and their phases, outputs, “sharable content,” and the teams for these approaches to projects.

lean-ISD Masters Series – ISPI – 2001 – 40 page PDF –  Guy Wallace’s 2001 Masters Series presentation at ISPI – this provides the background and an overview of lean applied to ISD – Instructional Systems Design – and the 5 methodology-sets of the PACT Processes for Training, Learning and Knowledge Management. Covers the 5 methodology-sets of the PACT Processes, the background, purpose, outputs, process phases, teams involved.

Books Covering PACT and EPPI

From 1999

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Free Book PDFs

lean-ISD (1999)

Click on image to link to the download page.

Note: the cover design for “lean-ISD” was created by the late Geary A. Rummler.

Note: Guy W. Wallace’s book “lean-ISD” – was a recipient of a 2002 Award of Excellence for Instructional Communication from the International Society for Performance Improvement.

lean-ISD is also available as a $15 paperback book – and $7.50 as a Kindle – for more and to order – please go – here.

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For more information about these 6 books – please go here.

Retirement Book Pricing 2016-03

More 

Resource Highlight: PACT Processes for lean-ISD – Training – Learning – Knowledge Management

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When to Upgrade From Informal Learning to More Formal Learning

It All Starts As Informal Learning – No?

If not in the present – then back in the day, no?

It always starts as an Informal Learning Situation … and then sometimes moves to a more Formal Learning Situation. Sometimes.

Informal Learning

Unnamed Unstructured On-the-Job By Trial & Error. 

Also known as Sink or Swim. Nobody even names it or explains it, or demonstrates it, or provides timely, helpful feedback.

Good luck – you are totally on your own.

Gradients of Formal Learning

Named Unstructured On-the-Job By Trial & Error. 

Also known as Sink or Swim. Nobody explains it, or demonstrates it, or provides timely, helpful feedback – after naming it.

Good luck – you are on your own. But at least the thing was named – giving you a starting clue. You can at least ask others that you work with – if they exist, or your supervisor.

Unstructured On-the-Job By Coaching.

Somebody provides some level of explanation or demonstration and may even provide some feedback. But there is no structure and no guidance to insure that key topics and tasks and nuances are covered. Loose.

Unstructured On-the-Job By Coaching by Designated Coach.

A named – by name or title – person provides some level of explanation or demonstration and may even provide some feedback. But there is no structure and no guidance to insure that key topics and tasks and nuances are covered. Still loose.

Unstructured On-the-Job By Coaching by Certified Coach.

A named – by name or title – person provides some level of explanation or demonstration and may even provide some feedback. But there is no structure and no guidance to insure that key topics and tasks and nuances are covered. Still loose.

More Gradients of Formal 

Structured On-the-Job By Coaching by Any Coach.

Any person provides specific explanation and/or demonstration and/or may even provide some feedback to initial attempts at performance. The structure and guidance provided to the Coach and perhaps to the Learner insures that key topics and tasks and even the nuances are covered. Loose only in terms the uncertainty of the Coach chosen.

Structured On-the-Job By Coaching by Designated Coach.

A named person – by name or title – provides specific explanation and/or demonstration and/or may even provide some feedback to initial attempts at performance. The structure and guidance provided to the Coach and perhaps to the Learner insures that key topics and tasks and even the nuances are covered. Not very loose.

Structured On-the-Job By Coaching by Certified Coach.

A named person – by name or title – certified via a formal and measured certification process – provides specific explanation and/or demonstration and/or may even provide some feedback to initial attempts at performance. The structure and guidance provided to the Coach and perhaps to the Learner insures that key topics and tasks and even the nuances are covered. Not loose in the least.

Even More Gradients of Formal 

All of the following with the necessary set-up and wrap up:

Self-Paced Readings on Paper

Self-Paced Online Asynchronous Readings

Self-Paced Online Asynchronous Elearning & Simulations 

Last Set of Gradients of Formal Learning

All of the following with the necessary set-up and wrap up:

Group-Paced Online Synchronous

Group-Paced Classroom

Group-Paced Classroom/Lab

When to Upgrade?

When the ROI dictates it to be necessary.

Formal-Informal Risk Assessment v2012

The R can be for Rewards and/or for Risks. Flip sides of the same coin IMO.

And … it’s all about the assessment of the Seriousness first and the Likelihood second.

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