I have come to like the term Instruction – after having gone back and forth on it several times over the past 4 decades – as it is inclusive of both Job Aids and Training (as we used to call these things back-in-the-day) and Performance Support and Learning Experiences (as the terminology is/has shifted).
And my sequence within the old and new terminology is deliberate.
First Think: Job Aids or Performance Support – if it’s worthy to address in the first place. That means the Performance Stakes should not be zero to low. They should be medium to high.
Stakes being the Risks and/or Rewards at stake.
Second Think: Self-Paced, the Coached, the Group-Paced for the Training or Learning Experiences.
What Kind of “Performance Response” Do You Instruct for?
Does the Performance Context Demand a Memorized Performance Response? You know, back at the ranch, so to speak – a.k.a.: Back-on-the-Job.
Or does the Performance Context Allow For a Referenced Performance Response?
Unless the Performance Context – the Situation – calls for/demands a Memorized Performance Response – we should stop with approaches to Instruction/Learning that are targeted to create the memorization of Knowledge and the honing of Skills – unless we intend to include sufficient Practice with Feedback to create those terminal Instructional/Learning objectives – and then the Spaced Instruction/Learning to combat The Forgetting Curve that’s needed if the Performance Context itself doesn’t provide the On-the-Job Applications and feedback necessary – in the WorkFlows/Processes.
Quit attempting to have the Performers memorize everything. They can’t.
Provide them with References: a.k.a.: Guidance, Job Aids, EPSS, Quick Reference Guides, Performance Support, WorkFlow Learning Support, SOPs, etc.
If they do the Performance often enough – Perform Tasks to Produce Outputs that Meet Stakeholder Requirements – they might eventually “learn” it well enough to not need the References going forward.
Go for Performance. Go for Performance Competence. By the Appropriate Means.