T&D/PI: Experts Operate on Non-Conscious Knowledge

BTW – I Learned All of This From Richard E. Clark, EdD

Here’s one source PDF:

Clark, R. E. (2011, July-August). The impact of non-conscious knowledge on educational technology research and design. Educational Technology.

Facilitated Group Process

I learned about – Experts Operating on Non-Conscious Knowledge – after decades of approaching ISD Analysis and Design using teams of Master Performers, Other SMEs, Supervisors and sometimes Novice Performers.

I found out early in my use of my Facilitated Group Process that I’ve been using as an external ISD consultant since 1982, that those types of experts, when collaborating, would add/augment each others contribution in response to my questions used to elicit data about Performance & Gaps 1st, Enabling Knowledge & Skills 2nd.


Regardless of the form of Instruction – Standalone Job Aids/Performance Support, or Job Aids/Performance Support embedded in Training, or Training when memorization and/or honing skills is required – one needs to be conscious of this non-conscious stuff.


Cognitive Task Analysis

Dick Clark uses a process called CTA – Cognitive Task Analysis – but beware – he told me back in 2012 that his team at USC had documented over 100 versions of CTA.

Here is a PDF on his approach:



Here are two articles from 1984 on my approach – the Facilitated Group Process – one for Curriculum Architecture Design (CAD), and the second on ISD Analysis. The were written in a different order, but they were published with CAD first, Analysis second.

CAD – Training Mag – 1984 – 6 page PDF – the first publication about Curriculum Architecture Design via a Facilitated Group Process – published in Training Magazine in September 1984. Original manuscript (30 pages) – How to Build a Training Structure That Won’t Keep Burning Down.

Models and Matrices- NSPI PIJ -1984 – 5 page PDF – the first publication of the performance and enabler analysis methods for ISD using a Facilitated Group Process, from NSPI’s (ISPI’s) Performance & Instruction Journal, November 1984.

Bottom Line

You need some way to mitigate this issue of non-conscious knowledge – which we all “suffer” from. Not just experts – but – them too.


The Gif

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Focus on the Performance Requirements – and Enable Them

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